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[定期翻译]Translate for “Image of today”——乱入流

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更多 发布于:2011-08-08 11:30
唔,网址在此,有空就翻翻,没空就休息……
http://www.nnvl.noaa.gov/imageoftheday.php
看看能坚持不……

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[quote][size=4][b]原文标题[/b][/size]
内容[/quote]
[table=100%,#ffffff,#dddddd,1][tr][td] [size=4][b]标题翻译[/b][/size][/td][/tr][tr][td] 段1[/td][/tr][tr][td] 段2[/td][/tr][tr][td] 图1[/td][/tr][tr][td] 图2[/td][/tr][/table]
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自称万物之灵的人类之于自然,到底是怎样一种渺小的存在呢?
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1楼#
发布于:2011-08-08 11:31
August 07 2011
[table=100%][tr][td=2,1]Since 1981, six Atlantic Basin tropical storms have been named Emily. During this time five NOAA geostationary operational environmental satellites have been used to capture imagery and track movements of her latest incarnations. This unique capability provides constant monitoring of our atmosphere to fulfill NOAA's ongoing mission to protect the lives and property of our citizens.[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]In 1981 GOES-5 followed Emily as she moved from the Bahamas north into the Atlantic. In 1987 she menaced Hispaniola as captured by GOES-7, an unfortunate tendency she showed in subsequent years. GOES-7 again imaged Emily in 1993 as she meandered in the Atlantic, coming close to Hatteras, NC before heading back into open waters. In 1999 GOES-8 took images of Tropical Storm Emily, one of a series of tropical waves from the African coast in mid-August. GOES-12 was on hand to capture the most prolific Hurricane Season on record, finding Emily again in the Caribbean moving west and triggering heavy rains and mudslides in Jamaica. This year GOES-13 captured Emily once again bringing misery to Hispaniola.[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]This continuity of operation reveals the strength of the GOES Program for providing the nations of the western hemisphere with timely and accurate weather forecasts and for tracking destructive storms such as Emily. No other system has the ability to observe weather events from birth to death, or to provide relevant guidance for emergency managers and citizens alike to make informed decisions regarding the safety of themselves and others.[/td][/tr][/table]

1981年以来,共有六个诞生于大西洋的热带风暴被命名为“埃米莉”(Emily)。在此期间,NOAA (美国国家海洋和大气管理署)的五颗地球同步轨道环境监测卫星被用以获得有关“埃米莉”的图像与路径形态。这个特别的能力使我们可以持续检测我们的大气,以帮助NOAA完成其保护群众人身安全的任务。
在1981年,GOES-5卫星飞越了风暴“埃米莉”,当时她正从巴拿马向北移动进入大西洋。而当1987年GOES-7捕获其图像时它正在威胁着伊斯帕尼奥拉岛(Hispaniola)。1993年GOES-7再次对正在大西洋上移动的“埃米莉”进行拍摄,当时她正在接近北卡罗莱纳州的哈特拉斯角,准备重新回到开阔的水域。1999年则是GOES-8捕捉到“埃米莉”,当时它是8月中旬北太平洋地区一连串从非洲西海岸发展而来的热带波中的一个。GOES-12在2005年多产的飓风季捕捉到“埃米莉”的身影,当时他正在加勒比海往西移动,并且给牙买加带去了大雨与泥石流。6年过去,2011年GOES-13捕捉到“埃米莉”时,它正在给伊斯帕尼奥拉岛带去灾难。
这一连串图像显示了GOES计划提供西半球及时准确天气信息的能力,并帮助我们预报和追踪那些如“埃米莉”一样具有强大破坏力的风暴。没有其他的系统能够持续地观测一个天气事件从他的起源一直到终结,也没有其他系统内能够实时为紧急情况部门管理者与城市管理者带去足够的有价值的信息以帮助他们保护他们,以及其他人的生命安全。

图片:796_20110805Emilythroughtheyears.jpg

自称万物之灵的人类之于自然,到底是怎样一种渺小的存在呢?
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发布于:2011-08-11 09:33
August 09 2011
Measuring Somalia's Lack of Rainfall
Prolonged drought in the Horn of Africa along with political turmoil has created a dire situation in Somalia. The Horn receives the majority of its precipitation during two wet seasons: one in the fall and another in the spring. The spring rains are especially critical, as the water is needed to last throughout the brutal sub-Saharan summer. This past year has been especially dry. Both wet seasons have failed to produce the rainfalls necessary to sustain crops and livestock, leading to widespread food shortages and famine.
In many areas around the world, even the U.S., rain gauge data can be sparse. Nevertheless, accurate rainfall estimates are needed for weather models and hazard warnings, so NOAA has developed techniques to augment rainfall measurements by including infrared and microwave data from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. Besides aiding forecasts in the U.S., these estimate techniques have proven very useful for detecting possible famines in Africa, and the data is widely used by the U.N., the World Meteorological Organization, and USAID. Shown here are plots of the average spring wet season (April through June) rainfall since 1995, the total rainfall during the wet season this past year (April through June 2011), and how the past season compared to the long-term average. Drier than normal conditions (brown colors) can be seen in the image on the far right throughout much of Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, The Republic of Tanzania, Uganda, and the newly-formed South Sudan.

评估索马里的缺少降雨
非洲之角持续很久的干旱连同政治动荡已经在索马里造成了非常严峻的形势。非洲之角的大部分降雨都是通过两个雨季获得的:其中之一是在秋季,另一个则在春季。春季的降雨尤其关键,因为人们需要凭这些降水熬过撒哈拉沙漠以南的严酷的夏季。过去的一年格外的干燥。两个雨季均未能产生必要的降雨来供养作物和牲畜的成长,从而引起了遍及各地的食物短缺和饥荒。
在世界上的许多地区,甚至包括美国,雨量计资料有时都很稀少。然而,天气模型和危险警告需要精确的雨量估计,所以美国国家海洋和大气管理署(NOAA)开发了一种技术,即通过计入来自于地球静止轨道卫星和极地轨道卫星的红外线和微波数据来加强雨量预测。除了协助美国的预测之外,这些预估的技术在探测非洲潜在的饥荒中已经证明是非常有用的,这些数据被联合国(UN)、世界气象组织(WMO)和美国国际开发署(United States Agency for International Development,USAID)广泛使用。这里显示的几张图分别是1995年以来春季雨季(4月到6月)的平均降雨量、过去一年(2011年4月到6月)的雨季的总降雨量、及过去的一季和长期平均的比较情况。在图片最右端可以看到在索马里、埃塞俄比亚、肯尼亚、坦桑尼亚共和国、乌干达、和新成立的南苏丹许多地方比正常干旱(显示为棕色)。

图片:20_33786_03616ee1e109794.jpg

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发布于:2011-08-15 11:19
August 14 2011
[table=100%][tr][td=2,1]NOAA Satellites Track 4 Storms With Cyclone Potential[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]Four low pressure systems in the Atlantic are being watched by NOAA's National Hurricane Center for the potential to organize into more developed tropical cyclones. Seen in this full-disk GOES-East satellite visible image taken on August 12, 2011 at 1445z, the storms stretch diagonally from just west of Africa to due east of North Carolina. Each storm has around a 20-40% potential to develop into a tropical cyclone over the next 48 hours.[/td][/tr][/table]

NOAA(美国国家海洋和大气管理署)卫星追踪4个可能变成气旋的风暴
NOAA的国家飓风中心(NHC)正在监视大西洋上的4个低压系统发展成更成熟的热带气旋的可能性。从这张拍摄于2011年8月12日格林尼治时间14点45分的GOES-East卫星的全景可见光影像可以看出,风暴从非洲西部斜向延伸到北卡罗来纳州的正东方。每个风暴在未来48小时内约有20%-40%的可能性发展成为热带气旋。

图片:801_20110812-GOES-FullDisk.jpg

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发布于:2011-08-16 11:03
August 15 2011
[table=100%][tr][td=2,1]Tropical Storm Gert Brushes Bermuda[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]GOES-East imagery of Tropical Storm Gert shows its position right off the coast of Bermuda, in this visible image taken on August 15, 2011 at 1615z. Gert, with maximum sustained winds of 60 mph, is not projected to make landfall in Bermuda. The storm is expected to turn north-northeast, posing no threat to the U.S.[/td][/tr][/table]

热带风暴“格特”(Gert)擦过百慕大群岛
这张可见光影像拍摄于2011年8月15日格林尼治时间16点15分,GOES-East卫星拍摄的图像显示,热带风暴“格特”正位于百慕大群岛的沿岸。“格特”的最大持续风速为每小时60英里,预计它不会在百慕大群岛登陆。据预测,它将转向北北东方向移动,不会给美国带来威胁。

图片:802_20110815-Tropical_Storm_Gert.jpg

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发布于:2011-08-17 11:16
August 16 2011
[table=100%][tr][td=2,1]Renewable Energy and the Lights of the World[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]American Renewable Energy Day is this week,and associated with it is a summit inAspenbringing together leaders in industry, government, and manyother sectors. Data and analysis by NOAA is used widely to understand energyconsumption and define areas of the environment ideal for harnessing renewablesources of energy. Each day this week, the NOAA Image of the Day will highlightthe application of satellite data to renewable energy.[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]To highlight the need for renewable energy,the global demand for energy is illustrated here using data from the U.S. AirForce DMSP satellites. The Operational Linescan System sensor onboard DMSP hasa unique capability to detect the visible and near-infrared energy associatedwith lights at night. NOAA manages the orbit and data acquisition of thissatellite and the NOAA National GeophysicalData Centerin Boulder, CO analyzes and archives the data. The Nighttime Lights of the World isone such analysis. Shown here are comparisons of how nighttime lights havechanged over the planet from 1992 to 2009. White areas indicate no change,yellow indicate an increase in nighttime lights, purple indicate a decrease innighttime lights over the 17 year period.[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]There has been very little net change inoverall nighttime lights in the U.S.during this period, though population and the GDP (gross domestic product) haverisen. Nighttime lights are correlated with GDP of developing nations, whereascountries with established electrical grids show more stable nighttime lights.The more efficient use of lighting in the U.S. and other developed nations inrecent years may be limiting the amount of light reaching space, even as theireconomies and power usage grow. Many suburban areas in the Northeast U.S. and Great Lakes show decreases in lights, associated with thedeclining population in these regions, whereas the South gained lights in manyareas. Southern Asia continues to show dramatic increases in energy use. India and China are almost completely yellowin this image. Over this time period, China’s light use has more thandoubled and GDP quadrupled. Decreases in these regions are seen, for the mostpart, only in the ocean –associated with offshore drilling and fishing.[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]A dramatic change can be seen in the energyuse of Eastern Europe, particularly the formerSoviet nations. The Soviet Union dissolved in December of 1992, and since thenthere has been massive migration from Eastern to WesternEurope. That shift can be seen here, as the base time period of1992 helps illustrate the before and after population and urbanization of theregion.[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]Not only is the use of energy shown innighttime lights, but also the acquisition of energy. Gas flares, the burn-offof natural gas and oil drilling, can be seen in many remote and offshore marineareas as large, intense lights in otherwise unpopulated areas.[/td][/tr][/table]

可再生能源与世界灯光
美国可再生能源日就在本周,奥斯本当天将举办一个产业峰会,工业巨头们、政 府以及其他很多部门都将参与。由NOAA(美国国家海洋和大气管理署)提供的数据和分析资料将广泛用于展示能源消费状况以及明确那些需要可再生能源的地区。这周的每一天,NOAA的“每日图片”将展示特别展示那些与可再生能源有关的卫星资料
在“突出可再生能源需求”中,全球能源需求的资料来自于美国空军的国防气象卫星(DMSP)。加载在DMSP卫星上的探测器对夜间灯光释放出的可见光、近红外波段的能量有非常好的探测能力。NOAA管理这些卫星的轨道以及获得的数据,位于科罗拉多州博尔德(Boulder)的美国地球物理数据中心负责分析并储存这些资料。”夜间灯光下的世界”是这些分析中的一个。今天的图片中展示了2009年相比于1992年灯光变化了多少,白色的区域代表没有大的变化,而黄色区域对应夜间灯光的增加,紫色的则显示了17年来夜间灯光在减弱的区域。
在这段时期(1992-2009),美国大陆上的夜间灯光几乎没有发生什么变化,尽管同时期人口与GDP都出现了增长。通常来说夜间灯光与发展中国家的GDP有关联,然而那些有着建成的完善电力网络的国家的夜间灯光变化总是稳定些。包括美国在内的发达国家对能源的高效利用可能抑制了最近几十年进入太空的光总量,甚至是在他们的经济与能源消耗提升时。美国东北部许多市郊地区以及五大湖区的夜间灯光都出现了减少,这可能与这些区域减少的人口有关,而南方许多地区的灯光则增加了。南亚地区的国家在能源消耗方面出现了显著地增长,印度和中国是图中最主要的“黄色区域”。在这段时间里,中国的灯光使用增长了超过两倍,同时09年的GDP是92年的4倍多。而这篇区域中的灯光下降仅仅出现在海洋——与近海钻探和渔业活动有关。
东欧地区有一个戏剧性的变化,特别是前苏维埃国家。1992年月苏联解体,在那之后出现了大量的向西欧的移民。这过程在图上清晰可见,夜间灯光显示了92年之后的人口和城市化变化程度。
夜间灯光不仅仅可以用来显示能源使用的情况,也可以从中看出能源获取方式的分布。气体、天然气的燃烧以及石油的开采所导致的夜间光亮,能在许多遥远的离岸的无人地区被显示出来。

图片:1.jpg

图片:2.jpg

图片:3.jpg

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发布于:2011-08-18 10:50
August 17 2011
[table=100%][tr][td=2,1]Renewable Energy and Global Winds[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]American Renewable Energy Day is this week, and associated with it is a summit in Aspen bringing together leaders in industry, government, and many other sectors. Data and analysis by NOAA is used widely to understand energy consumption and define areas of the environment ideal for harnessing renewable sources of energy. Each day this week, the NOAA Image of the Day will highlight the application of satellite data to renewable energy.[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]Wind power is a source of renewable energy with great potential, but it also requires careful planning. Just as wind patterns shift from day to day, they also differ across seasons and years. Satellites provide global measurements of wind speeds, and when measured over time and space, the potential wind power of a given location. The data depicted here uses ocean surface vector wind data from up to six satellites carrying scatterometer sensors: SSMI/S, QuikSCAT (prior to 2009), AMSR-E, and the TRMM Microwave Imager. The data are blended together into a seamless high resolution grid of wind vectors (speed and direction) four times a day. The average wind power for the months of January and July 2010 are shown. Notice the variability in the locations of areas with high wind power – illustrating the need for sustained observation and analysis of global winds. As prevalent as the high wind areas are, not all areas are ripe for offshore wind farms. To be effective, farms must be close to land and population centers, as transmission efficiency decreases with distance from the source. Areas in deep, offshore waters present challenges in construction and maintenance. Currently, offshore wind farms are found mostly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Germany, and most Nordic countries. Wind farms in the Great Lakes, U.S. and Canadian Pacific coast, and New England are also being pursued.[/td][/tr][/table]

可再生能源与全球风况
美国可再生能源日就在本周,与之相关联的是一场在阿斯彭(Aspen)举办的峰会,届时,工业、政 府部门和许多其他部门的领导将共聚一堂。NOAA(美国国家海洋和大气管理署)的分析和数据将被广泛用于理解能源消耗,以及定义利用可再生能源的理想环境区域。本周的每一天,NOAA的“每日图片”都将突出卫星数据在可再生能源中的运用。
风能是一种具有巨大潜力的可再生能源,但它也需要周密的计划。正如风的模式每天都在变化,风能一年四季也各不相同。卫星能提供风速的全球观测,当随着时间和空间测量时,还能提供某一特定位置的潜在风能。这里描述的数据使用的是海洋表面的矢量风数据,这些数据来自于相当于6个携带散射传感器的卫星:SSMI/S、QuikSCAT (在2009年之前)、AMSR-E、和TRMM微波成像仪。这些数据每天四次被混合在一起,形成一个无缝的高分辨率的网格风矢量(风速和风向)。如图所示为2010年1月到7月的平均风能。注意具有高风能区域的可变性——说明需要对全球风况进行持续的观测和分析。尽管疾风区域很普遍,但并不是所有的区域都适合建造海上风电场。风电场必须接近陆地和人口中心才有效果,因为传输效率随着与能量来源距离的增加而递减。(将风电场置于)深水区和近岸区,给建造和维护方面提出了挑战。现在,海上风电场多见于英国、爱尔兰、德国和许多北欧国家。美国五大湖地区、加拿大太平洋沿岸地区和新英格兰地区的风电场也在筹建中。

图片:804_20110817-Wind-Power.jpg

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发布于:2011-08-19 09:54
August 18 2011
[table=100%][tr][td=2,1]Renewable Energy and Ocean Currents[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]American Renewable Energy Day is this week, and associated with it is a summit in Aspen bringing together leaders in industry, government, and many other sectors. Data and analysis by NOAA is used widely to understand energy consumption and define areas of the environment ideal for harnessing renewable sources of energy. Each day this week, the NOAA Image of the Day will highlight the application of satellite data to renewable energy.[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]Hydroelectric generators have been harnessing the power of rivers for decades, and now eyes are turning to the “rivers” within the ocean – currents. Major ocean currents are much more temporally stable than their atmospheric equivalents, and their paths are well charted thanks to measurements from ships, buoys, and satellites. The Gulf Stream, one of the strongest currents in the world, meanders along the U.S. east coast from Florida to New England. Using data from the Jason-2 satellite, its average speed is shown here over the course of 5 days from August 1-5, 2011. Jason-2 is the fourth satellite launched as part of the Ocean Surface Topography Mission, developed by NOAA, NASA, France’s Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, and EUMETSAT. The altimetry sensor onboard Jason-2 is able to detect changes in the ocean surface height. The slope of the height change allows for a calculation of the surface velocity (i.e., a steeper slope in ocean height yields a faster ocean surface current). The data is combined with ocean surface wind vector data from other satellites to calculate the direction that the surface currents are moving. The high speeds (up to 7 mph), volume of water, and relatively constant location of the Gulf Stream make it an appealing candidate for offshore hydroelectric generation. Florida is currently exploring the idea of anchoring turbines off the coast. As water passes through the turbine, a propeller would spin and generate electric current, much like a wind mill. Understanding how deep in the water column to position the turbines from day to day requires accurate ocean circulation models, which depend on altimetry data like that from Jason-2.[/td][/tr][/table]

可再生能源与洋流
美国可再生能源日就在本周,期间工业企业的代表、政 府和其他许多部门的领导人将齐聚阿斯彭(Aspen)的一场高层峰会。由美国国家海洋和大气管理署(NOAA)提供的数据和分析将被广泛用于峰会中帮助理解能源的情况,并帮助决定那些需要可再生能源的地区。这周的每一天,NOAA的“每日图片”都将展示那些卫星产品中关于可再生能源应用的部分。
水利发电机已经在几十年前使得人类能够驯服河流的能量,而现在人类的目光正在投向那些海洋中的河流——洋流。大型的洋流通常要比大气要稳定得多,并且他们的路径已经被测量船只、浮标与卫星精确的测定。湾流,全球最强的洋流之一,沿着美国东部海岸曲折前行,从佛州到新英格兰。图示为按“詹森-2”卫星(Jason-2)在2011年8月1~5日获得的数据均值,湾流的速度如图所示。詹森-2卫星是海洋表面测量任务的第四颗卫星,由NOAA、美国国家航空航天局(NASA)、法国国家空间研究中心(CNES)以及欧洲气象卫星应用组织(EUMETSAT)共同研发。搭载在卫星上的测高仪能够精确测量海洋表面高度的变化。陡峭的海洋表面高度斜坡会导致较快的海洋表层洋流。詹森-2卫星得到的数据与其他卫星得到的表面风场数据一起被用来计算海洋表层洋流的方向和速度。较高的洋流速度、较大的水体量、以及相对恒定的位置使得湾流成为近海水力发电的一个理想候选者。佛罗里达州最近进行海岸附近锚定涡轮机组的实验。当水通过涡轮机时,内部的螺旋桨将会被推动旋转,由此产生持续的电流,这很像风力发电机组。如果想知道涡轮发电机组应该放置在多深的水面就必须依靠精确的海洋循环模型,而这些模型的建立依赖于测高数据等其他的数据,譬如由詹森-2卫星所得的数据。

图片:805_20110818-Surface_Currents.jpg

自称万物之灵的人类之于自然,到底是怎样一种渺小的存在呢?
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typhoonczx
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发布于:2011-08-23 10:28
August 22 2011
[table=100%][tr][td=2,1]Hurricane Irene Strikes Puerto Rico, Eyes U.S. Coastline[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]Irene became the first hurricane of the 2011 Atlantic season this weekend. The storm, with 80 mph sustained winds, passed over Puerto Rico on Sunday, and is now on a path towards the Bahamas and Florida coastline. A ridge of high pressure to the north of the storm, around Bermuda, should stay in place over the next few days, forcing the storm along a west-northwest path. Irene is expected to strengthen over the next 48 hours, potentially into a Category 2 hurricane. This image from the GOES-East satellite shows the storm on August 22, 2011 at 1345z. [/td][/tr][/table]

飓风“艾琳”(Irene)袭击波多黎各,瞄准美国海岸
本周“艾琳”成为了2011年大西洋风季的第一个飓风。这个风暴持续风速达每小时80英里,周日越过了波多黎各,现在的路径是指向巴哈马群岛和佛罗里达海岸。风暴的北面有一道高压脊,就在百慕大群岛附近,它在未来几天将会呆在原地,使风暴沿着西西北方向移动。据预测,“艾琳”在未来48小时内可能将加强成为一个二级飓风。这张来自于GOES-East卫星的图片显示的是这个风暴在2011年8月22日格林尼治时间13点45分的情况。

图片:806_20110822-Irene.jpg

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typhoonczx
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发布于:2011-08-24 09:06
August 23 2011
[table=100%][tr][td=2,1]Just How Much Rain Will Irene Bring?[/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]As Hurricane Irene intensifies and moves up the U.S. coastline, rainfall amounts will vary from a few inches to almost 20" in some places. The heaviest rains are predicted to remain offshore, though current NOAA GFS weather models, shown here, indicate that the Outer Banks and coastal New England may bear the brunt of Irene’s rains in the U.S. [Data source: NOAA NCEP GFS 0600z model run on August 23, 2011, total precipitation accumulation through August 31 at 0600z][/td][/tr][tr][td=2,1]The ability to make accurate predictions for heavy rainfall events, such as approaching hurricanes, days in advance is predicated upon high quality and frequent satellite observations of rain rate and total precipitable water, especially when storms are still offshore, outside the range of other sensors like radar. Polar-orbiting satellites, from the current NOAA-19, to the soon to be launched NPP, and the future JPSS, provide the majority of the data that drive NOAA’s weather models. Gaps in satellite data coverage will detrimentally affect NOAA’s ability to accurately estimate when, where, and how badly severe weather will impact the U.S. [/td][/tr][/table]

“艾琳”(Irene)会带来多少降雨
随着飓风“艾琳”加强并朝着美国海岸移动,雨量将会各不相同,从几英寸到某些地方接近20英寸不等。尽管现在美国国家海洋和大气管理署(NOAA)的全球谱模式(GFS)天气模型,正如此处显示的那样,预示着北卡外滩岛和新英格兰沿岸地区将承受“艾琳”给美国带来的降雨的主要压力。但据预测,最大的降雨仍将出现在近海地区。(数据来源:NOAA NCEP GFS 2011年8月23日格林尼治时间6点的模型,直到8月31日格林尼治时间6点的总累计降水量)
对强降雨过程,例如临近的飓风(带来的强降雨),做准确预测的能力,其提前的天数是基于对降雨率和大气水汽总量的高质量的和频繁的卫星观测,尤其是当风暴仍然在海上,处于诸如雷达之类的其他探测装置的观测范围之外时。极轨卫星,从现在的NOAA-19卫星,到即将发射的预备计划(NPP)卫星,以及将来的联合极地卫星系统(JPSS),提供制作NOAA天气模型的主要数据。卫星数据覆盖范围的缺口将会影响到NOAA准确预测恶劣天气对美国产生不利影响的时间、地点和程度的能力。

图片:809_20110823-Irene-Rainfall-GFS.jpg

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