楼主#更多 发布于：2013-10-30 17:06
Most Powerful Storm in 14 Years Sweeps Northwestern Europe
An extra-tropical cyclone, variously named St. Jude (The Weather Channel and the U.K. Met Office), Christian (Free Univ. of Berlin), Carmen (European Windstorm Centre, UK), and Simone (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute), swept across northwestern Europe October 27-29 with the strongest winds ever recorded for some locations and resulting in at least 16 fatalities as well as causing yet to be determined amounts of financial damage. Herein is a brief summary of this historic storm.
The storm developed along a wave front in the northwest Atlantic on October 26th before becoming engaged with a strong jet stream carrying copious moisture associated with the remnants of ex-tropical storm Lorenzo. The tropical air mass provided the catalyst for rapid strengthening of the low-pressure system at a location unusually close to the British Isles. The low crossed England on the night of October 27-28 deepening from 982 mb to 975 mb as it moved over England. The storm intensified rapidly on October 28th as it approached the European mainland with the central pressure bottoming out at around 965 mb over the North Sea. The lowest observed land-based pressure measurement during the storm was 967.6 mb at the Danish station of Thyboron at 14 UTC, October 28th. By the time the center of the storm reached Finland at around 1 UTC on October 29th it still had a central pressure of 970 mb. The cyclone was remarkable for its rapid advancement, covering 2000 km (1240 miles) in just 26 hours, an average forward speed of 77 kmh (48 mph). To the east of the low-pressure center a ‘dry slot’ developed between the warm and cold fronts as a result of what German meteorologists call a ‘sting jet’ formation. Dr. Michael Theusner of Germany’s Klimahaus Museum explains: “As the precipitation evaporates it lead to the formation of cold air at an elevation of a few kilometers. This cold air accelerated downward and likely led to the exceptionally high gusts of more than 170 kmh (105 mph) that were recorded at several locations in Germany and in Denmark. So the sting jet phenomenon was likely the ultimate cause for the extreme wind.”
10月26日之前，Lorenzo转化为温带气旋的残留部分与强大急流所携带的丰富水汽叠加，风暴循着西北大西洋的锋面波而发展。该热带气团激发了低压系统的迅速加强，位置异常接近英伦三岛。低压横跨英格兰，10月27-28日晚上，它移到英格兰，气压不断从982 MB加深到975 MB。 10月28日风暴迅速增强，它接近欧洲大陆的北海时，具有的中心压力是最低的965 MB左右。位于丹麦Thyboron站在UTC 10月28日14时，观测到风暴的最低陆基压力测量为967.6 MB 。UTC 10月29日约1时，风暴中心抵达芬兰，它的中心气压仍有970 MB。该气旋非常快速地推进，在仅仅26小时内就覆盖了2000公里（1240英里），平均前进速度为77 KMH（ 48英里每小时） 。低气压中心东部暖锋和冷锋之间的“干槽” 发展，德国气象学家称之为“高空急流”阵型。德国Klimahaus博物馆Michael Theusner博士解释说：“随着降水蒸发，导致几公里高地方的冷空气堆积。德国和丹麦的几个地点记录到170公里每小时（ 105英里每小时）以上的极高阵风，就是这股冷空气加速下降导致的原因。所以高空急流现象很可能是造成极端风速的最终原因。 “
Satellite image of the cyclone at 12:00 (noon) UTC on October 28th. The overlaid graphics show the positions of the warm and cold fronts, center of storm ‘T’, and the dry slot and sting jet location (yellow lines). Graphics from Wetterzentrale Forum.
Country Wind and Damage Reports
In Britain there have been 4 confirmed fatalities with 1 still missing. This included two people killed by a gas explosion that destroyed three homes when a tree fell on the structures. A peak wind gust of 159 kmh (99 mph) was measured at Needles Battery on the Isle of Wight (English Channel) but in general the maximum wind gusts over the U.K. mainland were limited to 120 kmh (75 mph). At its peak 660,000 homes lost power.
在英国已确认有4人死亡，1人仍下落不明。这包括两人死于煤气爆@炸，一棵大树倒在一构筑物上，摧毁了三间房屋。怀特岛（英吉利海峡）上的Needles Battery测到159 KMH（99英里每小时）的风速极值，但英国本土的最大阵风一般不超过120 KMH（75英里每小时）。在其高峰时期，有660,000个家庭断电。
Three homes were destroyed and two lives lost when a tree fell causing a gas explosion in this neighborhood of Hounslow, London. Photo by London Fire Brigade/AFP.
The storm largely bypassed France although in the northeastern portion of the country 75,000 homes lost power. A peak wind gust of 133 kmh (83 mph) was measured at Ile d’Ouessant, Finistere.
尽管风暴在很大程度上绕开法国，但在该国东北部，约有75,000个家庭断电。Ouessant, Finistere岛测到133 KMH（83英里每小时）的阵风极值。
The peak gust of 152 kmh (94 mph) at Vlieland, Friesland was the highest such ever measured in Holland during the month of October and the strongest since the Burn’s Day storm of 1990. A gust of 148 kmh (92 mph) was also recorded at Texel in the north of the country. There have been two fatalities and 25 injuries so far reported. Damage is estimated at 95 million Euros (about $123 million).
Vlieland的阵风最高达152 KMH（94英里每小时），荷兰Friesland测到10月史上最高的风速，也是自1990年Burn’s日风暴以来最强的一个风暴。在该国北部地区的Texel 也记录到148公里每小时（92英里每小时）的阵风。迄今为止，这里已有2人死亡，25人受伤的报告。损失估计在95亿欧元（约合123万美元）。
A new all-time wind speed record for Denmark was set at Kegnaes with a gust to 192.6 kmh (120 mph). The site is located on the shore of the Baltic Sea near the German border. A 10-minute sustained wind of 142.2 kmh (88 mph) was measured at Rosnaes. Two fatalities and 36 serious injuries have been reported and a tremendous amount of damage. All flights were suspended for several hours at Copenhagen International Airport. It was, as in Holland, the worst storm to affect the country since the famous Burn’s Day storm of January 25-26, 1990.
A map of top wind speeds observed in Denmark during the storm on October 28th. The figures are in meters per second: 1 mps=2.24 mph or 3.6 kmh. The first figure is the 10-minute sustained wind and the second figure the peak gust. Map from Danish TV 2.
A possible low-elevation national wind speed record for Germany was observed at both Borkum and Heligoland (North Sea Islands) with wind gusts of 191 kmh (119 mph) on October 28th. Maximum sustained winds were 130 kmh (88 mph). However, these measurements were made by private equipment and may not be acceptable by the official German met agency DWD (Deutscher Wetterdienst). Germany was the hardest hit nation in Europe with at least eight fatalities and severe destruction in the northern third of the country. Damage estimates are not yet available but much of the transportation infrastructure remained at a standstill on Tuesday October 29th in the region.
A map of peak wind gusts in kmh observed in Germany on Monday October 28th. These figures represent only the official numbers provided by the national weather agency DWD and so do not contain the 191 kmh figures noted above. There is a suspiciously low figure of just 69 kmh at Bremerhaven in the north on the coast. This is a result of equipment failure.
Elsewhere in Europe, and an interesting side note, the storm was responsible for the formation of huge waves off the coast of Portugal, one of which, a 100-foot monster, was surfed by Brazilian Carlos Burle. If verified, it would be the first 100-footer yet surfed (and thus, obviously, the tallest wave ever verifiably ridden!).
在欧洲其他地方，还有一个有意思的情况，该风暴在葡萄牙外海掀起了巨大的海浪，其中之一， 巴西的Carlos Burle 在100英尺高的巨浪中冲浪。如果证实，这将是第一个100英尺的冲浪（因此，很明显，可证实这是有史以来最高的浪！）
A photograph of the 100-foot wave observed from Praia do Norte, Portugal and the soon-to-be-famous Brazilian surfer Carlos Burle making his way down its face. Photographer not identified.
KUDOS: Many thanks for much of the above information to Dr. Michael Theusner of the German climate museum Klimahaus.