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[地区]双语回顾:1949年至今上海所有登陆台风回顾

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更多 发布于:2016-08-07 19:47

主题:双语回顾—1949年以来上海所有登陆台风回顾
THEME:The BIlingual Review-All Typhoons landfall in Shanghai since 1949
目录【Catalog】
第一部分 序言
PART 1  Preface
(1)上海概况【Summary of Shanghai】
(2)世纪气象站—徐家汇【Centennial Weather Station-Xujiahui】
(3)上海解放前台风概述【Sketch of typhoons landfall in Shanghai before her liberation】
第二部分 正文
PART 2  Main Body
(1)六月廿九大潮汛—记4906 GLORIA
【The most severe storm surge in Lunar June 29—4906 GLORIA 】
(2)不知名的低压—5122 PAT
【An unknown tropical depression—5122 PAT】
(3)三年灾害初的两连击—5901 BILLIE&5905 LOUISE
【Double hits at the beginning of three years' disaster—5901 BILLIE&5905 LOUISE】
(4)宝山特大暴雨—7708 BABE
【Torrential rainstorm in Baoshan—7708 BABE】
(5)浦江高潮—8913 KEN-LOLA
【Huangpu River high tide—8913 KEN-LOLA】
(6)孱弱的邂逅—9507 JANIS
【Weak encounter—9507 JANIS】
(7)新世纪首台—0004 启德
【The first typhoon in the new century—0004 KAI-TAK】
(8)松江区地理一模考题—1416 凤凰
【The paper in Model Test 1 of Songjiang District—1416 FUNG-WONG】
(9)进博会背景下的三登—1810 安比、1812 云雀&1818 温比亚
【Triple landfalls with CIIE—1810 AMPIL、1812 JONGDARI&1818 RUMBIA】
未完【To be continued....】
第三部分 后记
PART 3  Postscript
(1)上海登陆台风总结
【All typhoons landfall in Shanghai】
(2)气候变化对上海台风的影响
【The impact on typhoons in Shanghai with global climate change】
第四部分 资料来源
PART 4 Sources


[约瑟但以理于2019-01-25 08:03编辑了帖子]
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1楼#
发布于:2016-08-07 20:08
第一部分 序言(上 )
PART 1  Preface
(1)上海概况
        上海,神州大地上最发达的直辖市,位于华东地区。她坐落于东海之滨,与江苏、浙江为邻,在长江三角洲的顶点,平均海拔为4米左右。其大部分是典型的平原地形,西部有佘山和天马山等少量山丘。黄浦江穿城而过,苏州河则是黄浦江最大的支流,蕴藻浜成为了黄浦江的最后一条支流。她所在的地方历史是富庶的江南鱼米之乡,现在则以四个中心(经济、金融、贸易、航运)的建设目标为主要发展战略。属于亚热带季风气候的她冬季湿冷,初夏有连绵的梅雨,夏季多强对流、伏旱和台风等灾害性天气。
       上海,有着悠久的历史。4000年前,广富林是上海的古老城镇之根。春秋,这块土地最先还是吴地。战国,上海是楚国春申君黄歇的封邑,故别名称“申”。晋朝,渔民创造捕鱼工具“扈”,江流入海处称“渎”,因此松江(今吴淞江)下游一带被称为“扈渎”,以后又改“”为“沪”。以上就是上海简称的来历。唐天宝十年(主后751年),上海地区属于华亭县(今松江区)。元至元二十九年(主后1292年),上海县设立(今上海黄浦区),标志着上海建城之始。1842年,《南京条约》规定上海成为通商的五口之一。1843年,上海正式开埠,宣教士麦都思抵沪。1927年,上海特别市建立。1931年,一二八事变爆发。1937年,淞沪会战爆发。1949年5月27日,上海解放。1956年,上海今日的版图大致形成。2016年,崇明撤县改区。上海进入“全区时代”。

图片:上海古代捕捞工具.jpg


图1-1-1 捕鱼工具

图片:南京条约.jpg

图1-1-2 五口通商

图片:上海全市地图.jpg



图1-1-3 上海全市地图
       上海,地铁贯通了全市大部分区域。无论是共线运行的3号线和4号线,还是让奉贤告别地铁难的5号线,又或者是南北大动脉之称的1号线、东西主干的2号线,所有的地铁线路都给她的居民带来了实在的便利。摩天大楼和高架道路成为了她的天际线,迪士尼、东方明珠、豫园、上海中心和外滩等构成了她贯穿东西古今的地标。她有着很多吸引人的地方,早在上世纪30年代有不夜城的美誉,现今又被称为魔都。南翔小笼、粢饭团、腌笃鲜等美食真是让人垂涎欲滴。

图片:上海地铁.jpg


图1-1-4 上海地铁全路网(拍于5号线奉贤新城)

描述:小笼

图片:南翔小笼.jpg

小笼

图1-1-5 南翔小笼

描述:上海腌笃鲜

图片:上海腌笃鲜.jpg

上海腌笃鲜

图1-1-6 腌笃鲜
 (1)Summary of Shanghai
       Shanghai,located in Eastern China,is the most prosperous  municipality in the Devine Land. She is situated in the coast of East China Sea whose neighbouring provinces are Zhejiang and Jiangsu. Besides,she is at the top of Yangtze River Delta,and she averages about 4 meters.She traits plains while She Moutain,Tianma Mountain and other hills in the west part. The Huangpu River flows through the city,which the Suzhou River leads to. What's more,the Wenzao River become the ultimate tributary of the Huangpu River. In history,she was the land of fish and rice. However, international economic,financial,trading,shipping center construction is the most important goal to achieve for Shanghai in the brilliant future. She belongs to Subtropical Monsoon Climate and is characterized by raw winter and  continuous plum rain in early summer. In addition, distastrous weather like strong convention,summer dought and typhoons often hit in Shanghai.
      Shanghai has a long history. Over 4000 years ago,Guangfulin was the root of the town in Shanghai. During the Spring and Autumn,it was ruled by Wu.During the Warriant States,she became the fief of Huang Xie,Lord of Chunshen for Chu,so it was called "Shen". In the Jin Dynasty, fishing tools named “Hu” were created by local fishermen. Also,where the river flows into the sea was called “Du”. This is why “Hudu” was named after the lower reaches of the Songjiang River(Today Wusong River). Called Hu and Shen for short, she was attached to the Huating Prefecture in the tenth year of Tianbao in Tang Dynasy. Then, Shanghai County marked the start of  the city in the 29th year of Zhiyuan in Yuan Dynasty(1292 A.D.). In 1842,Shanghai was listed in Nanking Treaty as one of five trading ports along the coastline after opium war and Walter Henry Medhurst(Missionary from United Kingdom) arrived in Shanghai.In 1927,Shanghai Special Administrative City was established. In 1931,the Jan.28 Incident broke out. In 1937, the Battle of Shanghai began. On May 27th in 1949, She was liberated. In 1956,the terriory was roughly formed. In 2016,The Chongming District has been the milestone of the era of all districts.
      Metro lines are linked almost everywhere in Shanghai. Line 3 and Line 4 are in colinear operation from Baoshan Road to Hongqiao Road. Fengxian District has bidden farewell to the difficulty of traffic for the extention of Line 5 from Dongchuan Road to Fengxian Xincheng. Line 1 passes through the city from north to south while Line 2 is the main line for the commute from west to east. All metro lines has brought convenience to citizens in this land. Her skyline is occupied by skyscrapers and elevated roads. Disney Resort,Oriental Pearl TV Tower,Yuyuan Garden,Shanghai Tower,the Bund and so on has been diverse landmarks throughout East and West, ancient and modern. She also has charmed many people. In the early 1930s, she was called the city of light. Nowadays,her nickname is Magic City. Delicacies such as Nanxiang Steamed stuffed buns,glutinous rice balls and Yan Du Xian Soup make many tourists' mouth watery.
[约瑟但以理于2019-01-24 21:43编辑了帖子]
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发布于:2016-08-07 20:17
第一部分 序言(中 )
PART 1 Preface
(2)世纪气象站—徐家汇
       2012年11月12日,世界气象组织(WMO)秘书长雅罗参加开幕式并致辞,授予上海市气象局国际世纪气候站证书,表彰徐家汇观象台连续140年收集的长时间序列气候资料,对世界气象组织全球系统和计划做出的突出贡献。
        时间回到一百四十多年前,“1872年12月1日,徐家汇最低气温为4.8℃,最高气温为16.9℃。”这一年,法国传教士高龙鞶创建了徐家汇观象台,并在观测日志上记下了上述内容,从此开启了上海地区连续140余年气象观测记录的篇章。1881年,观象台设立航海服务部,由此翻开了气象服务的篇章;1884年,外滩信号台在外滩建成,开始预告天气和授时服务;1920年,开始航空气象服务;1959年,利用马可尼测雨雷达,上海建成中国第一个天气雷达站;1964年,正式开展数值天气预报方法的研究和应用,成为全国最早开展业务数值天气预报的地区之一;1988年,上海成立全国最早的区域气象中心;2003年11月,上海完成郊区气象现代化建设;2010年完成世博会气象服务,和世界气象组织与中国气象局联合参展的世界气象馆。

图片:1872徐家汇.png


  图1-2-1 1872年徐家汇观象台旧址
       徐家汇观象台初期研究成果的取得都与一个人密切相关,他就是徐家汇观象台的第一任台长能恩斯。能恩斯1845年生于瑞士日内瓦,1876 年成为徐家汇观象台台长。
       能恩斯因病回泽西岛之后,又有一位神父来接替他台长的位置,这就是法国人蔡尚质。1897年11月至 1898 年3月,他赴长江流域以1200次天文观测绘制并出版《长江上游图集》,蔡尚质于1900年创建佘山天文台,并亲任台长直至1924年。

图片:1880徐家汇.jpg



图1-2-2 1880年徐家汇观象台扩建成两层楼房(旧址)

图片:1900徐家汇钟楼.jpg



图1-2-3 徐家汇观象台现楼(现址)

图片:1910设备.jpg



图1-2-4 徐家汇早期设备(20世纪10年代)

图片:1920S徐家汇鸟瞰.jpg





图1-2-5 徐家汇上世纪二十年代的鸟瞰图
       在蔡尚质被解除台长职务之后,一位强有力的年轻神父接替了他的台长位置,他就是劳积勋(Froc)。1896 年,劳积勋成为徐家汇观象台台长。其所研究的可视气象信号系统——用于为船只提供天气变化、尤其是恶劣风暴警报——1898 年被中国海关(Chinese Maritime Customs)接受用于中国大部分港口。由于他在台风预报方面的才干与业绩,劳积勋在水手中广为人知,被誉为“台风神父”。劳积勋还是一位颇有造诣的气象学家,他于1900年出版了《远东的大气》一书,这本书成为法国政府分发给远东航行的舰船的必备书籍。
      徐家汇观象台140年的观测资料从无间断。徐家汇观象台资料被应用于全球地表温度序列重建,如英国东英吉利大学Climatic Research Unit重建的全球气温序列中就使用了徐家汇观象台的资料,该序列被IPCC第四次气候变化评估报告所引用。

图片:1873-2011百年数据.jpg



图1-2-6 徐家汇百年数据

图片:外滩信号塔.jpg



图1-2-7 1884年,外滩信号台建成(高:15米),为海上航行提供气象信号服务,信号塔初建时使用木杆悬挂风暴信号(左上);1906年建造的混凝土信号塔,塔高36.8米,铁杆高12米(总高约50米)(左下);1927年扩建后的外滩信号台(右上);20世纪50年代的外滩信号塔(右中);2010年依然矗立在黄浦江边的外滩信号塔(右下)。
      不过,现在的徐家汇经常被调侃,比如2016年的最早入春让气象爱好者对其又爱又恨。这是因为,徐家汇位于市中心,周边楼房挺多。形成了明显的热岛效应,而且沪闵高架距离徐家汇不远,来自松江的热风经常可以徐家汇轻而易举升温。

图片:徐家汇观象台周边地图.jpg



图1-2-8 徐家汇气象台周边
  (2)Centennial Weather Station-Xujiahui
     On Nov.12,2012,the Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Jarrow, attended the opening ceremony,delivered a speech and awarded the Shanghai Meteorological Bureau the International Century Climate Station Certificate, which commended the long-term sequence climate data collected by the Xujiahui Observatory for 140 consecutive years, and made the World Meteorological Organization's global system and plan. outstanding contributions.
    Time returned to more than 140 years ago, "On December 1, 1872, the minimum temperature in Xujiahui was 4.8 °C, and the highest temperature was 16.9 °C." In this year, the French missionary Gao Longzhen created the Xujiahui Observatory and The above contents were recorded on the observation log, which opened the chapter of the meteorological observation record for more than 140 years in Shanghai. In 1881, the Observatory set up a navigation service department, which opened the chapter of meteorological services; in 1884, the Bund signal station was built on the Bund, and began to forecast weather and timing services; in 1920, aviation meteorological services began; in 1959, the use of Marco Nissan rain radar, Shanghai built China's first weather radar station; in 1964, officially carried out the research and application of numerical weather prediction methods, became one of the earliest regions in the country to conduct business numerical weather prediction; in 1988, Shanghai established the earliest national Regional Meteorological Center; In November 2003, Shanghai completed the suburban meteorological modernization construction; in 2010, it completed the meteorological service of the World Expo, and the World Meteorological Museum jointly participated by the World Meteorological Organization and the China Meteorological Administration.
       The initial research results of the Xujiahui Observatory were closely related to one person. He was the first director of the Xujiahui Observatory. Born in 1845 in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1876, he became the director of the Xujiahui Observatory.
       After Ens was sick of returning to Jersey, another priest came to take over the position of his director. This is the Frenchman named Stanislaus Chevaliev. From November 1897 to March 1898, he went to the Yangtze River Valley to draw and publish the Atlas of the Yangtze River with 1,200 astronomical observations. Stanislaus Chevaliev founded the Lushan Observatory in 1900 and served as the director until 1924.
     After Stanislaus Chevaliev was dismissed from the post of director, a powerful young priest took over the position of his director. He was Froc. In 1896, Lao Jixun became the director of the Xujiahui Observatory. The visual weather signal system it studied was used to provide weather changes for ships, especially bad storm warnings – and was accepted by Chinese Maritime Customs in most ports in China in 1898. Because of his talents and achievements in typhoon forecasting, Froc is widely known in the hands of the sailors and is regarded as the "Priest of Typhoon." Lao Jixun is also an accomplished meteorologist. He published the book "The Atmosphere of the Far East" in 1900. This book became a must-have book for the French government to distribute to the ships of the Far East.
      The observations of the Xujiahui Observatory for 140 years are uninterrupted. The Xujiahui Observatory data was applied to the reconstruction of global surface temperature series. The global temperature sequence reconstructed by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom used the Xujiahui Observatory's data, which was cited in the IPCC Fourth Climate Change Assessment Report.
      However, the current Xujiahui is often a joke such as the earliest spring in 2016 so that meteorological enthusiasts love and hate it. This is because Xujiahui is located downtown and there are many buildings  around it. An obvious heat island effect has been formed, and the Humin Elevated Road  is not far from Xujiahui. The hot air from Songjiang can often easily heat its temperature。
[约瑟但以理于2019-01-25 14:41编辑了帖子]
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发布于:2016-08-07 21:27
第一部分 序言(下)
Part 1  Preface
(3)上海解放前台风概述
    上海,作为一种沿海城市,其面向的是广阔的西北太平洋。这片海域当中,自然少不了登陆上海的台风。
    1879年7月31日,徐家汇观象台首任台长能恩斯(Marc Dchervens)手绘1879年7月31日影响上海强台风的台风眼。他的学术造诣在今天看来简直卓越超凡。他创立了台风研究的理论,并将台风理论应用于预报与服务之中。创纪录地首次画出清晰的台风眼,开创了远东气象史上关于台风路径记录的先河。此外,他通过分析沿海各灯塔站及周边各站的气象数据,撰写论文《1879年7月31日的台风》,分析并预报了这次台风。这是首次较为准确地作出的台风预报,拉开了中国天气预报的序幕。19世纪晚期,上海经常遭受台风袭击。准确绘制、测算、预报台风成为夏季预报的重点之一。他基本准确地画出了台风的形态:螺旋结构,气流由外向内,中心有台风眼。对比它和卫星云图,我们可以发现:两者差别已经不大。

图片:18790731上海台风.jpg


图1-3-1  上海1879年7月31日手绘的台风

图片:对比.jpg


图1-3-2 手绘台风与卫星图对比
      作为能恩斯助手的劳积勋神父将气象绘测工作继续延续了下来。他总共绘制了620个台风路径,对比能恩斯的台风路径更加准确。除了绘制台风路径外,他还发明并推广了可视气象信号系统;与国际气象台建立了无线电通讯,实现了国际经度联测和精准授时。

图片:台风路径图.jpg


图1-3-3 台风路径图(1893-1918)
     在历史文献中对于台风带着的灾害多有记述。下面选取一下来说明,并附上自己的评价。
(1)清光绪七年(1881年)六月二十至二十一日(7月15~16日)强台风袭沪,黄浦江中船只走锚,进水,沉溺无算,浮尸漂流。 徐家汇极大风速28.2米/秒,拔木塌屋,法租界一石库门吹倒,压塌披屋六间,压死伤各一人。夜潮上涨,低处成泽国。七月十九、二十日(8月13、14日),台风海潮横溢,越圩塘直抵钦公塘根,田庐多淹。闰七月初三至初五(8月27~29日)台风袭沪,大风暴雨海溢,马路行舟。黄浦江内及吴淞口船只沉伤甚多,捞尸不少,棺木卖空。
观点:1881年是典型台风大年,感觉有点像2018年。不过,看了一下唯一有数据的,感觉和1810安比登陆强度差不多,大致可能类似于8913KEN-LOLA,放在今天应该是标准的强热带风暴无误。
(2)清光绪十一年(1885年) 台风、潮灾 六月二十二、二十三日(8月2、3日),风潮狂起,拔木坏屋,六月二十三日(8月3日),徐家汇极大风速达38.4米/秒。潮溢,田畴尽淹。六月二十九日(8月9日),水未退而台风海潮又起,禾苗被淹,日久颗粒无收,秋疫流行。
 观点:1885年的第一个台风放在今天绝对是台风级的家伙,关键是当初1211海葵如果登陆象山后北上,那么就不要想象这受灾场面了~这家伙如果放在今天的上海,地铁很多区段将被关闭,而且上海的高层建筑有点危险,特别是玻璃幕墙会成为高空隐患。
(3)清光绪十三年(1887年) 台风、暴雨 六月初六(7月26日),台风,徐家汇极大风速为33.1米/秒。屋瓦横飞,吹坏吹塌屋宇不少,一马戏棚被席卷,黄浦江和苏州河内停泊之船移锚走缆、损棚折舵者甚多。
观点:那时候真惨,前一年三个台风,这一年又来,而且动不动台风级。
 (4)清光绪十七年(1891年) 台风、暴雨 七月二十六日(8月30日)起,台风、暴雨连袭二日,雨量达200多毫米。七月二十九日(9月2日),又大风暴雨竟日,徐家汇极大风速32.9米/秒,日雨量101.3毫米。八月二十三日(9月25日),台风暴雨又袭,迭次风潮,花铃摇落,木棉亩收仅三十斤。
观点:这两个台风的降水真暴力,放在今天上海也是考验。
(5)清光绪十九年(1893年) 台风 六月初九(7月21日),台风袭沪。徐家汇极大风速28.8米/秒。草房凉棚都被刮走,黄浦江中船只失事。 台风 七月二十二日(9月2日),台风袭沪,徐家汇极大风速30.2米/秒。飞沙走石,大树吹折,老屋棚舍吹倒无算。黄浦江内驳船倾覆,一女孩被吹入江中。
观点:9月份还会有强热带风暴的强度登陆上海,怎么让我想到了7708BABE。
(6)清光绪三十一年(1905年) 7月27~28日强台风袭沪,极大风速达 43.9米/秒,吹斜徐家汇天主堂尖顶重达 400公斤之铁十字架,房屋坍塌,树木摧折,马路积水盈尺,农田受淹,通信中断,工商业停顿,英法租界行道树被吹倒达6000余株。黄浦江沉船300余艘,损坏船只千艘,浮尸200余具,损失严重。八月初三(9月1日)台风暴雨,海溢,城市街巷尽淹,外滩水深及膝,沿海及 长江口各沙洲圩塘尽毁,沿海民房尽毁, 淹毙万余人。南汇“死千余人,庐舍、牧畜、浮厝漂没无数”。《中外日报》载南汇来函,“初三日晚飓风挟潮,南邑海溢,漫过圩塘,并有数处,冲成缺口,自沙岭以东,水高二三丈,如是者二团至七团,南北四十里,东西阔者十四五里,最狭处四五里,漂没沙民无数,间有踞屋顶,抱门板,漂至沙岭得生者,亦嗷嗷待哺,朝不保暮”。据《江苏省通志稿·灾害志》载:在这次罕见的风暴潮灾中丧生的人数——崇明:1.7万余人。川沙:5500人。宝山:2500余人。南汇:1000人。总数为2.6万人。《中外日报》当时报道:“现在死者暴露,棺殓不验,且将漂泊入海,尸骸无著,而生者亦庐舍荡然,风餐露宿,沉灶产蛙,炊烟俱断,深恐不日亦将就毙。如此奇灾,近百年来所未有……”
(7)1915年  台风、暴雨、潮灾 7月27、28日,台风穿行上海,28日,徐家汇最大风速38.3米/秒,极大风速43.9米/秒,伴以大暴雨和高潮位,为百年一遇。徐家汇观象台风向表被毁,邻近天主堂高耸顶尖一具十字架,约400公斤重吹斜,暴雨和江潮溢入,致马路积水成渠。市区拔木毁屋,折断电线、电杆不胜数记,瓦砖遍地,树木塞道,压毙30多人,伤300人。由于大面积停电,南市及法租界电车全线停驶,京、津、沪、汉17路电报阻滞,商店、学校被迫停业停课。沿江沿海塘毁堤决,淹没田庐,禾苗皆损。沿海滩之茅屋棚舍尽卷去,泊滩之竹排被冲散,水保险公司承保出口货物价值23万两银遭毁。金山嘴一带渔舟尽毁,觅尸无着。黄浦江中沉船300多艘,损坏千艘,浮尸200多具。8月23日,川沙县田中稻棉摧折略尽。观点:1905年第一个和1915年第一个放在今天估计是强台风级,1509灿鸿、1109梅花、0509麦莎中的任意一个如果不小心当时登陆上海的话,估计非常惨。海陆空交通全部瘫痪,摩天大楼的玻璃将会成为凶器,地下空间成泽国,吴淞口、黄浦公园、米市渡等水文站估计全线超警。经济损失肯定会达到除名标准。1905年第二个则是横沙岛岛民口中的梦魇之一,与4906GLORIA一样臭名昭著。
下面放些受灾图:从图1-3-4到图1-3-6都是

图片:台风以后内涝的街道.jpg



图片:上海早期台风.jpg

图片:民国上海台风下的交通.jpg



图片:1930s上海台风.jpg



(3)Sketch of typhoons landfall in Shanghai before her liberation          
            Shanghai, as a coastal city, faces the broad Northwest Pacific. In this area, there are naturally some typhoons that made landfall in Shanghai.
          On July 31, 1879, the first director of the Xujiahui Observatory, Marc Dchervens, painted the typhoon that affected the strong typhoon in Shanghai on July 31, 1879. His academic achievements seems extraordinary and extraordinary today. He founded the theory of typhoon research and applied typhoon theory to forecasting and services. For the first time in a record, a clear typhoon eye was drawn, creating a precedent for typhoon path records in the history of the Far East. In addition, he analyzed and forecasted the typhoon by analyzing the meteorological data of the coastal lighthouses and surrounding stations and writing "the typhoon on July 31, 1879”. This is the first time that a more accurate typhoon forecast has been made, which has opened the curtain for China's weather forecast. In the late 19th century, Shanghai was often hit by typhoons. Accurately drawing, measuring and forecasting typhoons has become one of the focuses of summer forecasting. He basically figured out the shape of the typhoon: the spiral structure, the airflow from the outside to the inside, and the center has a typhoon. Comparing it with the satellite image today, we can find they are very similar.
      As a helper of Ens, Stanislaus Chevaliev continued the work of meteorological mapping. He sketched 620 typhoon tracks in total, which is more accurate than Ens' . In addition to sketching the typhoon track, he also invented and promoted the visual weather signal system; establishing a radio communication with the International Meteorological Observatory to achieve international longitude test and precise timing.
      In the historical documents, there are many descriptions of the disasters brought by the typhoon. Let's take a look at the description below and attach your own review.
(1) Qing Guangxu seven years (1881) June 20-21 (July 15-16) Strong typhoon hit Shanghai, the Huangpu River ships anchored, into the water, sinking without counting, floating corpses drifting. Xujiahui had a wind speed of 28.2 m / s. The house was collapsed. The French Concession was blown down by a stone door. The six houses were crushed and the one was crushed. The night tide rose and the low place became a country. On July 19 and 20 (August 13 and 14), the typhoon tides overflowed, and the Yuetangtang arrived directly at the Qingong pond roots. From the third day of July to the fifth day of August (August 27th to 29th), the typhoon hit Shanghai, and the storm was overflowing with the storm. Ships in the Huangpu River and Wusongkou have suffered a lot of injuries, and they have a lot of corpses, and the rafters are short.
Opinion: 1881 is a typical typhoon, and it feels a bit like 2018. However, looking at the only data, the feeling is similar to the 1810 AMPIL, which may be similar to the 8913 KEN-LOLA, which should be the standard Severe Tropical Storm today.
(2) The 11th year of Guangxu Emperor Guangxu (1885) Typhoon and tidal disaster June 22nd and 23rd (August 2nd and 3rd), the tide was raging, and the bad house was pulled out, June 23 (August 3), Xujiahui has a wind speed of 38.4 m/s. The tide overflowed and the domain was flooded. On June 29 (August 9), the water did not retreat and the typhoon tide began again. The seedlings were flooded, and the particles were not collected for a long time. The autumn epidemic was popular.
 Opinion: The first typhoon in 1885 is definitely a standard typhoon today. The key is that if the 1211 HAIKUI came north after landing in Xiangshan, then we can imagine this disaster scene~ If it is in today's Shanghai, the sections of  many metro lines will be closed, and Shanghai's high-rise buildings are a bit dangerous, especially the glass curtain wall will become a hazard.
(3) Qing Guangxu thirteen years (1887) Typhoon, heavy rain On the sixth day of June (July 26), the typhoon and Xujiahui had a maximum wind speed of 33.1 m/s. The roof tiles flew, and many of the houses were blown up. A horse shed was swept away. The Huangpu River and the Suzhou River were anchored by ships, and there were many rudders.
Viewpoint: It was really terrible at that time. Three typhoons in the previous year, this year, came again, and could not move the typhoon level.
 (4) Qing Emperor Guangxu Seventeen Years (1891) Typhoon, Heavy Rain On July 26 (August 30), typhoons and heavy rains hit two days, and the rainfall reached more than 200 mm. On July 29 (September 2), another heavy storm was over, and the Xujiahui had a wind speed of 32.9 m/s and a daily rainfall of 101.3 mm. On August 23 (September 25), the typhoon storm hit again, and the winds and waves rose. The kapok harvest was only 30 pounds.
Opinion: The precipitation of these two typhoons is really violent, and it is a test in Shanghai today.
(5) Qing Emperor Guangxu 19 years (1893) Typhoon On the early ninth of June (July 21), the typhoon hit Shanghai. Xujiahui has a wind speed of 28.8 m/s. The pergola of the grass house was scraped away, and the ship in the Huangpu River was wrecked. Typhoon On July 22 (September 2nd), the typhoon hit Shanghai, and Xujiahui had a wind speed of 30.2 m/s. Flying sand and stone, the big tree is blowing, and the old house shed is not counted. The barge in the Huangpu River was overturned and a girl was blown into the river.
Opinion: There will be a strong tropical storm in Shanghai in September, how come I think of 7708BABE?
(6) Qing Guangxu thirty-one years (1905) July 27-28, strong typhoon hit Shanghai, the wind speed reached 43.9 m / s, blowing the Xujiahui Catholic Church spires weighing 400 kilograms of iron cross, houses collapsed, trees were destroyed The road was full of water, the farmland was flooded, the communication was interrupted, the industry and commerce were stopped, and the English and French concession road trees were blown down to more than 6,000. There are more than 300 ships in the Huangpu River, damage to thousands of ships, and more than 200 floating bodies. The losses are serious. On the third day of August (September 1), the typhoon and rain, the sea overflowed, the streets and streets of the city were flooded, the Bund deep and the knees, the coastal and the Yangtze River estuary were destroyed, and the coastal houses were destroyed and over 10,000 people were drowned. Nanhui "dead more than a thousand people, squatting, animal husbandry, floating rafts are not countless." The "Sino-Foreign Daily" contains a letter from Nanhui. "The hurricane in the evening of the third day of the third day of the hurricane, the south of the sea overflows, over the Qiangtang, and there are several places, rushing into the gap, east of the sand ridge, the water is two or three feet high, such as Ertuan To Qituan, the north and south forty miles, the east and the west are fourteen five miles, the narrowest part is four or five miles, there are countless floating sand people, there is a roof, a door panel, drifting to the sand ridge, and also waiting to be fed, Not guaranteed." According to "Jiangsu Province Tongzhi Manuscripts and Disasters": The number of people killed in this rare storm surge - Chongming: more than 17,000 people. Chuansha: 5,500 people. Baoshan: More than 2,500 people. Nanhui: 1000 people. The total number is 26,000. The "Sino-Foreign Daily" reported at the time: " It’s such a disaster, that has not been there for nearly a hundred years...”
(7) Typhoon, heavy rain and tidal disaster in 1915 On July 27 and 28, the typhoon passed through Shanghai. On the 28th, the maximum wind speed of Xujiahui was 38.3 m/s, and the maximum wind speed was 43.9 m/s, accompanied by heavy rain and high tide. Once in a while. The Xujiahui Observatory's wind direction table was destroyed. Near the Catholic Church, there was a towering top with a cross, about 400 kilograms of heavy blows leaned, heavy rain and river tides overflowing, causing the road to accumulate water. In the urban area, the houses were destroyed, and wires and poles were broken. Tiles were everywhere,trees blown down, and more than 30 people were crushed and 300 people were injured. Due to the large-scale power outage, the southern city and the French Concession trams stopped driving. Seventeen telegraphs like Hankou,Beijing and Tianjin were blocked, and shops and schools were forced to suspend. The coastal dykes along the Yangtze River will be destroyed, and the fields will be inundated. The huts along the beach were rolled up, the bamboo rafts on the beaches were washed away, and the water insurance company underwrote the export goods worth 230,000 silver. The fishing boat in the Jinshanzui area was completely destroyed. There are more than 300 shipwrecks in the Huangpu River, damage to thousands of ships, and more than 200 floating bodies. On August 23, the rice in Chuansha County was slightly destroyed.
Viewpoint: The first one in 1905 and the first one in 1915 is estimated to be a strong typhoon level. Any one of 1509 CHAM-HOM, 1109 MUIFA, and 0509 MASTA would be very miserable if any of them unfortunately made landfall in Shanghai. The sea, land and air traffic is all rampant, the glass of the skyscraper will become a dangerous weapon, and the underground space will be flooded, Wusongkou, Huangpu Park, Mishidu and other hydrological stations are estimated to be over the alert water level. Economic losses will definitely meet the requirement of retirement of the name. The second one in 1905 was one of the nightmares in Hengsha Islanders, and was as notoriously as the 4906GLORIA.
[约瑟但以理于2019-01-25 17:53编辑了帖子]
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发布于:2016-08-08 14:37
第二部分 正文
PART 2 Main Body
小注:从现在开始,我就展开对于1949年以来上海登陆台风的回顾。
Note: From now on, I will start a review of the typhoons landfall in Shanghai since 1949.



第二部分 正文
(1)六月廿九大潮汛—4906 GLORIA
        今年是2019年,这场台风整整过去了七十年。在动笔以前,笔者要向这场台风的遇难者表示纪念。这场台风在上海老一代人当中留下了深刻的印象,毕竟已经很长时间没有如此强的台风侵袭上海。而根据某个说法,像这样的台风在上海重现需要50-100年。
        2.1   时局巨变
       时间倒回到1949年,这一年对于中国是巨变之年。4月23日,南京解放,总统府易主,一个时代画上了句号。1949年5月初“打过长江去,解放全中国”的口号,响彻了大江南北。5月12日,上海战役打响。不过,战事激烈之处是在上海的高桥、罗店等地,进入市区后为了保全上海,一律禁止使用重炮。5月27日,上海解放。

图片:上海解放.jpg


图2-1-1 上海战役地图
       但是,当时的上海已经被通货膨胀弄得民不聊生,工业几乎凋零,生活物资严重匮乏。这座位于长江入海口的大都市百废待兴,所有的一切必须从头开始。远东华尔街也不复存在,上海特别市的光环早日褪去。这座城市迎来了一个新主人—陈毅市长将会带领上海人迎来一个崭新的春天。
       不过,1949年对于当时的上海人来说,有两桩大事给其留下了不可磨灭的印象。6月10日,整治汉口路证券大楼金融投机。还有一件,就是这场台风让上海人亲自经历了一回大自然的威力。
2.2  台风初成,浙东告急
        1949年-1951年,按照气候学的统计来看,是出现了典型的拉尼娜现象。而一头一尾,都出现了台风登陆上海的情况。1949年,西江流域出现了超百年一遇的特大洪水,而长江流域因为支流开汛早自然而然也发生了大水。不过,就在长江中下游的梅雨还未结束的时候,4904号台风ELAINE西行进入南海,随后登陆了珠江口东岸的香港,给珠三角地区带来了一片清凉。
       

描述:4904

图片:4904香港台风.png

4904
图2-2-1  4904号台风(这张图到珠江口已经看不出)
          4905号台风
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发布于:2016-08-08 15:11
第二部分 正文
(1)六月廿九大潮汛—4906 GLORIA
      首先,作者在这里向70年前在这场台风灾害中遇难的华东、华北和东北居民表示哀悼。今年是2019年,也是这场台风灾害整整70周年纪念。同时,这个台风就是横沙岛民的又一个梦魇—决口严重,而我的奶奶当时仅十多岁,差点被风暴潮冲走。而这句话一直成为横沙老一代人对台风灾害的口头禅,因为这场台风让横沙损失惨痛。
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发布于:2016-08-08 15:38
第2集 最晚登陆上海台(5122 PAT)
注:这个台风在《横沙乡志》上竟然毫无记载!
不过,她是当之无愧最晚登陆上海台,竟然在9月28日登陆上海!比1416 凤凰要晚五天!猜测当时的人肯定是想不到,竟然还有这么晚登陆上海的台风!不过,她没有GLORIA的强度,仅仅是一个 平凡的热带低压!

故事得从1951年9月20日说起,5121 CORA正在迫近广东沿海,最后仅仅以TD强度登陆广东雷州。大家都会以为,中国沿海不可能再有台风登陆,但是菲律宾以东又出现了新的一片低压区,这个低压区很快就成为热带低压。
图17:CORA和新生的LPA

图片:19510920_2.jpg


图18:低压区变为热带低压

图片:19510920_3.jpg


然而,1951年登陆我国的台风绝大部分集中在广东,华东在5122 PAT之前竟然收获零蛋!
就这样,这个低压区开始了它的传奇之旅。后面掠过台湾海峡登陆浙江会一笔带过!
下面是1951年登陆台风情况:可见华东竟然在9月下旬才迎来台风。
5105 / 热带低压 热带低压 1951年5月14日 广东台山-斗门
5106 / 热带风暴 热带低压 1951年6月20日 海南琼海
5112 LOUISE 超强台风 台风 1951年8月2日 广东吴川
5115 / 强热带风暴 热带低压 1951年8月18日 广东湛江
热带低压 1951年8月18日 广西北海
5118 NORA 台风 台风 1951年9月3日 海南文昌
5121 CORA 强台风 热带低压 1951年9月22日 广东雷州
5122 PAT 台风 热带风暴 1951年9月28日 浙江玉环
热带低压 1951年9月28日 浙江平湖-上海金山
[约瑟但以理于2016-08-08 15:59编辑了帖子]
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7楼#
发布于:2016-08-08 15:55
第2集 最晚登陆上海台(5122 PAT)
5122 PAT按照9月常规的台风路线西行,以热带风暴的强度撞上了菲律宾吕宋岛,随后进入南海。

图片:19510924_2.jpg



图17:登菲(副高压顶)

图片:19510924_3.jpg



图18:进南海
这个形式的环流让人又要以为台风来华南,可是环流形势很快发生了巨变!
但是,5122PAT竟然从台湾海峡穿过,这个路径真的是走钢丝的表演!如果稍有不慎,就会直接撞上西台湾,被高大的山脉破坏结构从而消亡!
图19:台湾海峡中的5122 PAT(当时已经连上锋面),其实环流也不算很大。

图片:19510927_2.jpg


图20:5122登陆浙江

图片:19510928_2.jpg



此时的5122 PAT竟然没想到,会在华东沿海登陆。更没想到的是,接下去她要去的地方竟然是中国最大的城市—上海!看这个环流形势图让我想起了1416 凤凰。
补充:据了解,玉环县地处东南沿海,几乎每年都会受台风影响,其中有5次受影响特别严重,损失也最惨重。为此,它们被铭刻在了地标上:5122号台风(热带风暴)、8403号台风(强热带风暴)、8506号台风、0004号台风启德(强热带风暴)、0509号台风麦莎
图21:台风地标(玉环)

图片:玉环台风登陆地标’.jpg



图22:5122 PAT迫近上海

图片:19510928_3.jpg



最后,PAT做到了!她竟然踏上了上海的土地!离开上海后,她转化为温带气旋向着远方走去。
不过,估计这场台风对上海的影响不大,所以网上几乎没有资料(欢迎大家帮我补充资料)
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发布于:2016-08-08 16:34
第3集 解放后唯一一年两连击 (5901 BILLIE &5905 LOUISE)
1959年,对于中国来说是个重要的年份。
同时,在上海1949年以来的台风历史中,竟然会有两个台风登陆!
首先将介绍的是5901 BILLIE(这个台风竟然是第一个登陆我国沿海的台风)


故事从1959年7月8日的菲东说起。此时的副高已经完成了第一次北跳,不过位置偏东。
按照正常的思路,这样生成的台风一般都会去日本,形成典型的初夏台路径。
图23:菲东5901胚胎

图片:19590708_1.jpg



可是,这个低压发展时间挺长,直到7月14日才获得名字BILLIE(当时JTWC管辖名字)
图24:TS时刻(当时有个江淮气旋位于淮河流域)

图片:19590713_1.jpg



5901 BILLIE就这样踏上了西北行之路,他学习的是4906 GORLIA的路径,但是没有4906的强度。
此时,他正在沉思该往哪里去,远望着中国大地,他仿佛知道了什么,就向前走。台湾此时已经绷紧了神经,因为再这样下去,台湾将成为第一个登陆点。
图25:5901位于台湾以东近海,强度达到台风级。

图片:19590715_1.jpg



正当台湾以为一场西北台即将来袭之时,大气环流发生的改变救了台湾一命,却使得华东沿海一下子开始警惕。
图26:5901跑到台湾北部近海

图片:19590715_2.jpg



此时的副高开始西伸、北抬,5901的路径就发生了大的转变,从西北转为北北西。
不过,5901外围仍然给台湾北部带来了风雨影响。
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发布于:2016-08-08 16:55
第3集 解放后唯一一年两连击 (5901 BILLIE &5905 LOUISE)
不过,5901 LOUISE从浙江沿海上陆,路径转为北上。
图27:5901位于浙江境内北上

图片:19590716_2.jpg



在7月17日,5901 LOUISE以强热带风暴的强度(CMA数据)登陆了上海市的奉贤沿海。
不过,这个台风对于上海影响相对有限。欢迎大家帮忙提供资料,因为网上基本上很难查到上海的损失。

接下来,就要来说5905 LOUISE的情况。
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