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 楼主| 发表于 2012-1-31 08:32 | 显示全部楼层

暴雪和寒流造成欧洲36人死亡

As temperatures dropped to around minus 20 degrees, authorities opened hundreds of emergency shelters across the region and urged people to be careful and stay indoors. Police went searching for homeless people to make sure they didn\'t freeze to death.
由于气温骤降至零下20度,当局在整个地区开设了数百个应急避难所,并呼吁人们要待在室内。同时警方还去寻找无家可归的人,以确保他们不被冻死。
Ukraine\'s Emergency Situations Ministry said 18 people died of hypothermia and nearly 500 people sought medical help for frostbites and hypothermia in just three days last week.
乌克兰紧急情况部称,在短短3天内,便有18人死于体温过低,近500人由于冻伤和体温过低不得不寻求医疗帮助。
Twelve of the dead were homeless people whose bodies were discovered on the streets.
死者中包括12个无家可归的人,他们的尸体在街道上被发现。
Temperatures in parts of Ukraine plunged to minus 16C during the day and minus 23C during the night. Authorities opened 1500 shelters to provide food and heat and shut down schools and nurseries.
乌克兰部分地区白天的气温达到零下16℃,而夜间气温更达到了零下23℃。当局开设了1500个庇护所提供食物和暖气,并关闭了学校和托儿所。
At least 10 people froze to death in Poland as the cold reached minus 26C yesterday.
昨天,波兰零下26度的低温至少导致10人被冻死。
Malgorzata Wozniak, a spokeswoman for Poland\'s Interior Ministry, told The Associated Press that elderly people and the homeless were among the dead and police were checking unheated empty buildings to corral the homeless into shelters.
波兰内政部的发言人Malgorzata Wozniak告诉美联社记者,为避免老人和无家可归者死亡,警方对没有暖气的空建筑物进行了检查,并让无家可归者进入庇护所。
Until now, Poland had been having a mild winter with little snow and temperatures just below freezing.
到目前为止,波兰的冬天一直温暖少雪,温度仅略低于冰点。
In central Serbia, three people died and two more were missing and 14 municipalities were operating under emergency decrees. Efforts to clear roads of snow were hampered by strong winds and dozens of towns faced power outages.
在中 央塞尔维亚,有3人死亡及2人失踪,14个自治市宣布进入紧急状态。他们努力清除道路上的积雪,强风导致几十个城镇面临停电的威胁。
Police said one woman froze to death in a snowstorm in a central Serbian village, while two elderly men were found dead, one in the snow outside his home. Further south, emergency crews are searching for two men in their 70s who are feared dead.
警方说,中 央塞尔维亚有一名女子在雪暴中被冻死,另有两名老年男子死在自己家门口的雪地里。再往南,救援人员正在寻找两个失踪的70岁男子。
In Romania, local media reported four people had died due to the frigid weather. Hungry dogs and puppies near the Romanian capital of Bucharest got a helping hand after a dozen prison inmates shovelled snow to unblock paths to a stray dog shelter housing 300 dogs.
据罗马尼亚当地媒体报道,寒冷的天气导致了4人死亡。饥饿的狗和幼犬在罗马尼亚首都布加勒斯特附近得到了救助,有12个狱中的犯人铲除积雪,疏通道路并盖起能容纳300条狗的流浪狗收 容所。
The strays had been frozen in after snowstorms and icy weather swept Romania. Bucharest is home to some 50,000 stray dogs.
在暴风雪和严寒天气席卷罗马尼亚后,有许多流浪狗将被冻僵。光布加勒斯特市便有约50000条流浪狗。
In neighbouring Bulgaria, a 57-year-old man froze to death in a northwestern village and emergency decrees were declared in 25 of the country\'s 28 districts. In the capital of Sofia, authorities handed out hot tea and placed homeless people in emergency shelters.
在邻近的保加利亚,一名57岁的男子在西北部的一个村庄中被冻死,在全国28个州中有25个宣布进入紧急状态。在首都索非亚,当局为庇护所里的无家可归者提供了热茶。
Strong winds also closed down Bulgaria\'s main Black Sea port of Varna.
强风还使保加利亚黑海沿岸的港口瓦尔纳被迫关闭。
In the Czech capital of Prague, city authorities worked to set up tents for an estimated 3000 homeless people. Freezing temperatures also damaged train tracks, slowing railway traffic.
在捷克首都布拉格,城市当局曾设立帐篷收容3000个左右的无家可归者。严寒还损坏铁轨,使得铁路交通放缓。

emergency=紧急情况;非常时刻
eg:It\'s an emergency surgery.(这是一场紧急的手术)

nurseries=托儿所
eg:The children are well cared for in the nurseries.(孩子们在托儿所受到很好的照顾)

municipality=直辖市;自治市;市政当局
eg:This municipality is directly under the central government.(这个直辖市由中 央直接管辖)

decree=法令;命令;判决
eg: The court granted her a decree of divorce.(法庭同意判她离婚)

sweep=扫去;席卷;扫荡
eg:A cold wind swept through the north.(寒风席卷北方)
016944-120131-snow.jpg
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-2-1 09:03 | 显示全部楼层

波多黎各吹捧新的巨型望远镜计划

Puerto Rico plans to build a hotel and a planetarium as part of a $50 million project to attract more visitors to the world\'s largest single-dish radio telescope, officials said Tuesday.
周二官员表示,波多黎各计划投资500万美元兴建一个酒店和天文馆,以吸引更多的游客到世界上最大的单体射电望远镜来参观。
It is the first major announcement from the new managing consortium for the Arecibo Observatory, which fought budget cuts last year that could have forced its closure.
这是阿雷西博天文台新的管理团队宣布的首个重大公告,根据去年的财政预算,其可能被迫关闭。
The planetarium would be built within two years and the hotel within five years, Puerto Rico\'s Metropolitan University said. The school helps run the observatory with California-based SRI International, a nonprofit research group, and the Universities Space Research Association, a Maryland-based nonprofit founded under the National Academy of Sciences.
波多黎各城市大学表示,天文馆将在五年内建成,酒店也将在两年内建成。学校将帮助加州SRI国际公司,非营利性研究小组,大学空间研究协会,国家科学院批准成立的马里兰州非营利组织维持天文台的运作。
The plan is to convert an onsite cafeteria and staff housing into a hotel and restaurant to help promote the observatory as an educational tourism niche in the Caribbean, according to Puerto Rico\'s tourism office.
波多黎各旅游办事处称,该计划还计划将天文台的食堂和员工住房改造成为酒店和餐厅,以帮助促进天文台成为加勒比地区的教育旅游中心。
Funding will come from several government agencies and public universities.
资金将来自多个政 府机构及公立大学。
Among the project\'s objectives is to create a doctoral program in astronomy and space science and to attract more than 50,000 students a year, said Federico Matheu, Metropolitan University president.
大都会大学校长Federico Matheu说,在该项目的目标是建立天文学和空间科学方面的博士课程,预计每年将吸引超过5万名学生。
The 1,000-foot-wide (305-meter-wide) radio telescope that was featured in the movies \"Contact\" and \"GoldenEye\" currently attracts about 100,000 visitors a year.
目前这台1000英尺宽(305米宽)的射电望远镜,由于曾在电影“超时空接触”和“黄金眼”中出现,从而吸引了每年约10万名游客。
In June, the National Science Foundation awarded a $42 million, five-year contract to the consortium to help finance studies at the observatory.
今年六月,国家科学基金会将根据为期5年的合同给天文台研究财团拨款4200万美元,以对其实施经济援助。
The radio telescope identified the first planets beyond the solar system, and it once sent a three-minute broadcast to the Hercules constellation in 1974 in a quest to contact alien civilizations.
1974年,该望远镜在首次发现太阳系外的武仙座中发现行星时,曾对其连续发射了3分钟的无线电波,以试图与外星文明接触。
The observatory, located on the island\'s north coast, opened in 1963 and was operated by Cornell University until last year.
该天文台位于岛的北部海岸,它从1963年起开始使用,直到去年才由康奈尔大学接手。

telescope=望远镜
eg:He looked through his telescope at the approaching ship.(他透过望远镜看着驶近的轮船)

announcement=通告;布告
eg:An announcement will be made next week.(下周将发布一个通告)

observatory=天文台;气象台
eg:With zero degrees longitude running through the observatory at greenwich, in London.(零度经线通过伦敦的格林威治天文台)

planetarium=天文馆;天象仪
eg: He visits the deserted planetarium.(他参观了空寂无人的天文馆)

nonprofit=非盈利的
eg:Some nonprofit groups are organized as corporations.(有些非营利性组织以公司形式存在)
11.png
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-2-2 15:49 | 显示全部楼层

全球气温变化专题文章(上)

The world is getting warmer. Whether the cause is human activity or natural variability—and the preponderance of evidence says it’s likely humans—thermometer readings all around the world have risen steadily since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
世界正在变暖,无论是人类活动还是自然变化-最有可能的原因是人类活动-导致世界各地的温度计读数自工业革命开始以来稳步上升。
According to an ongoing temperature analysis conducted by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and shown in this series of maps, the average global temperature on Earth has increased by about 0.8°Celsius (1.4°Fahrenheit) since 1880. Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20°C per decade.
美国航空航天局戈达德太空研究所(GISS)的科学家正在进行的对一系列温度图进行的分析结果表明,自1880年以来,全球平均气温上升了约0.8摄氏度(1.4华氏度)。有三分之二的变暖过程发生在1975年至今这段时期,上升幅度约为每10年0.15-0.20℃。
But why should we care about one degree of warming? After all, the temperature fluctuates by many degrees every day where we live.
但为什么我们要关心温度变暖呢?毕竟我们的住处每天都会有几度的温度波动。
The global temperature record represents an average over the entire surface of the planet. The temperatures we experience locally and in short periods can fluctuate significantly due to predictable cyclical events (night and day, summer and winter) and hard-to-predict wind and precipitation patterns. But the global temperature mainly depends on how much energy the planet receives from the Sun and how much it radiates back into space—quantities that change very little. The amount of energy radiated by the Earth depends significantly on the chemical composition of the atmosphere, particularly the amount of heat-trapping greenhouse gases.
全球气温记录中包括全球表面的平均温度。我们现在已了解到,短期内的气温能有很大的波动,导致这些波动的原因包括可预见的周期性事件(白天和黑夜,夏季和冬季)以及难以预见的风力和降水模式。但是,全球温度变化主要取决于地球从太阳得到的能量,以及反射回太空的辐射。地面辐射在很大程度上取决于大气中的化学成分,特别是温室气体的含量。
A one-degree global change is significant because it takes a vast amount of heat to warm all the oceans, atmosphere, and land by that much. In the past, a one- to two-degree drop was all it took to plunge the Earth into the Little Ice Age. A five-degree drop was enough to bury a large part of North America under a towering mass of ice 20,000 years ago.
若全球气温上升了1度,便需要大气,海洋和土地为其提供大量热量。在过去,由于全球气温下降1-2℃,从而使得地球进入了小冰期。若当全球气温下降5度,便足以使得北美洲被冰盖覆盖,从而进入与2万年前相同的大冰期。
The maps above show temperature anomalies, or changes, not absolute temperature. They depict how much various regions of the world have warmed or cooled when compared with a base period of 1951-1980. (The global mean surface air temperature for that period was estimated to be 14°C (57°F), with an uncertainty of several tenths of a degree.) In other words, the maps show how much warmer or colder a region is compared to the norm for that region from 1951-1980.
上图显示的是全球气温异常或变化情况,而不是绝对温度。这些图反映出了这个时段的气温与1951至1980年的基期相比的变化程度(这一时期的全球平均表面气温约为14°C(59°F),但具有一定程度上的不确定性(约为几十分之一))。换言之,这种地图显示的是某地某个时期的气温与1951至1980年相比的变化情况。
The data set begins in 1880 because observations did not have sufficient global coverage prior to that time. The period of 1951-1980 was chosen largely because the U.S. National Weather Service uses a three-decade period to define “normal” or average temperature. The GISS temperature analysis effort began around 1980, so the most recent 30 years was 1951-1980. It is also a period when many of today’s adults grew up, so it is a common reference that many people can remember.
数据集之所以始于1880年,是因为之前的数据还未覆盖全球。而参考值选在1951-1980年期间,主要是因为美国国家气象服务中心通常用30年这段时期来确定“正常值”或均温。又因为GISS温度分析自1980年开始,故将近30年定义为1951-1980年。况且在这个时期生活的人现已长大成人,所以这个时期天气状况有许多人都记得,故将其作为参考标准。

thermometer=温度计;寒暑表
eg:The thermometer reads 26℃.(温度计上的读数是26摄氏度)

ongoing=正在进行的
eg:There\'s an ongoing investigation.(此项调查正在进行中)

fluctuate=波动;变动;动摇
eg:He fluctuated between hope and despair.(他时而充满希望时而失望)

Ice Age=冰期
eg: And that\'s the iast ice age.(那是最后一次冰期)

absolute=纯粹的;绝对的
eg:His story was an absolute lie.(他所说的话是个十足的谎言)
1880-89.png
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-2-3 10:51 | 显示全部楼层

全球气温变化专题文章(下)

To conduct its analysis, GISS uses publicly available data from 6,300 meteorological stations around the world; ship-based and satellite observations of sea surface temperature; and Antarctic research station measurements. These three data sets are loaded into a computer analysis program—available for public download from the GISS web site—that calculates trends in temperature anomalies relative to the average temperature for the same month during 1951-1980.
为了对这种趋势进行科学分析,GISS采用了世界各地6300多个气象观测站提供的公开数据;舰船及卫星观测的海洋表面温度数据及南极研究站的实测数据。之后再将这三个数据集成到电脑分析方案中,并将可用数据提供到GISS网站上供公众查询,计算每个月与1951至1980年同月平均气温的相对温度异常趋势。
The objective, according to GISS scientists, is to provide an estimate of temperature change that could be compared with predictions of global climate change in response to atmospheric carbon dioxide, aerosols, and changes in solar activity.
GISS科学家称其目标是提供对未来温度变化的估计,而与这些关于全球气候变化预测相关的参数包括大气中的二氧化碳含量,气溶胶含量及太阳活动的变化。
As the maps show, global warming doesn’t mean temperatures rose everywhere at every time by one degree. Temperatures in a given year or decade might rise 5 degrees in one region and drop 2 degrees in another. Exceptionally cold winters in one region might be followed by exceptionally warm summers. Or a cold winter in one area might be balanced by an extremely warm winter in another part of the globe.
通过图片可以看出,全球变暖1度并非意味着全球的气温都上升1度。在某年或某个年代,某个地区的气温可能将上升5度,而另外地区的气温可能会下降2度。在一个地区特别寒冷的冬天格外温暖的夏天可能会遵循。或者在地球的某个地区迎来了一个特别寒冷的冬天,而在一个地区则迎来一个异常温暖的冬天。
Generally, warming is greater over land than over the oceans because water is slower to absorb and release heat (thermal inertia). Warming may also differ substantially within specific land masses and ocean basins.
一般来说,在陆地的变暖速度比海洋更快,因为水吸收和释放热量速度都较慢(热惯量)。而不同的大陆,海洋和盆地变暖的幅度也可以大不相同。
In the past decade (2000-2009), land temperature changes are 50 percent greater in the United States than ocean temperature changes; two to three times greater in Eurasia; and three to four times greater in the Arctic and the Antarctic Peninsula. Warming of the ocean surface has been largest over the Arctic Ocean, second largest over the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans, and third largest over most of the Atlantic Ocean.
在过去十年(2000-2009年),美国附近陆地的温度变化幅度比海洋温度变化幅度大50%;而欧亚大陆这个值为两到三倍;而在北极和南极半岛的差值则为三至四倍。海水表面变暖最严重的地区是北冰洋,其次是印度洋和西太平洋,第三的是大西洋的大部分地区。
In the analysis, the years from 1880 to 1950 tend to appear cooler (more blues than reds), growing less cool as we move toward the 1950s. Decades within the base period do not appear particularly warm or cold because they are the standard against which all decades are measured. The leveling off between the 1940s and 1970s may be explained by natural variability and possibly by cooling effects of aerosols generated by the rapid economic growth after World War II.
在对1880-1950年的分析中,全球气温偏冷频率较大(蓝色区域多于红色区域),但自1950年,气温偏冷的频率开始减小。可某个时间段气温和基期相比,变暖或变冷似乎不那么明显,这是由于该段时间气温是10年的平均值的。而1940-1970年这段气温平稳期可解释为第二次世界大战后经济快速增长排放大量气溶胶导致了气候变异,使变暖和变冷相互抵消。
Fossil fuel use also increased in the post-War era (5 percent per year), boosting greenhouse gases. But aerosol cooling is more immediate, while greenhouse gases accumulate slowly and take much longer to leave the atmosphere. The strong warming trend of the past three decades likely reflects a shift from comparable aerosol and greenhouse gas effects to a predominance of greenhouse gases, as aerosols were curbed by pollution controls, according to GISS director Jim Hansen.
化石燃料的使用也使战后这段时间温室气体排放量的增加(每年5%)。但气溶胶导致的气温冷却过程十分直接,而温室气体导致气温变暖则相对缓慢,需要更长的时间才能对气温造成影响。而过去三十年的变暖的趋势可解释为由于人们控制大气中的气溶胶含量,使得温室气体对气候的影响增加,GISS主任Jim Hansen表示。

meteorological=气象的,气象学的
eg:National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration.(中国气象局国家气候中心)

available=可用的;可得到的
eg:Is there water available around here?(附近能弄得到水吗? )

exceptionally=异常的;极端的;特殊的
eg:This summer has been exceptionally dry.(今年夏天极其干燥)

peninsula=(地理)半岛
eg: His house is located on the tip of the peninsula.(他的房子位于半岛顶端)

fossil=化石;顽固不化的人;守旧的人
eg:he is an old fossil.(他是个老顽固)
2000-09.png
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-2-4 13:51 | 显示全部楼层

厄尔尼诺气候模式在全球范围内可能影响疾病的暴发(上)

Certain disease outbreaks, including some of the worst pandemics of the 20th century, are linked to weather patterns in the Pacific Ocean, according to new research. Scientists said tracking these climate changes can help officials anticipate and plan for surges in illnesses.
新的研究表明,某些疾病的爆发,包括二十世纪的某些流行病,都与太平洋的天气模式所相关。科学家称研究气候变化可以帮助预测疾病的激增。
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle causes ripples through the global climate, changing rainfall and air currents. These shifts, in turn, can cause disease carriers to interact in new ways, creating novel pathogens. Weather changes can also increase the number of people exposed to a disease, increasing the likelihood of an outbreak.
厄尔尼诺-南方涛动(ENSO)的周期性变化将会影响全球气候,并改变降雨模式和气流。反过来,这些变化可能会为病毒携带者造成新的传播途径,并创造出新病原体。天气的变化,还可以使得暴露于某种病原体中的人群增加,从而增加疾病爆发的可能性。
El Niño is the warm phase of the ENSO, characterized by unusually high sea surface temperatures along the equator in the Pacific, lasting between nine months and two years, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
根据美国国家海洋和大气管理局的定义,厄尔尼诺现象是ENSO的暖相位,其特点是在9个月至2年内赤道太平洋的海水表面温度异常偏高。
The temperature changes seem small -- usually 0.5 to 1 degree Celsius -- but they can alter rainfall patterns all over the world. \"It\'s a shift in the large-scale dynamics of the tropical atmosphere,\" said Jon Gottschalck, head of forecast operations at NOAA\'s Climate Prediction Center. \"It\'s not regular, and it\'s not predictable. They call it an oscillation, but it\'s an aperiodic oscillation.\"
温度的变化看似很小-通常为0.5至1摄氏度-但其可以改变世界各地的降雨模式。NOAA气候预测中心预测业务主管Jon Gottschalck说:“这是发生在热带地区的大规模的大气变化模式,这是无规律且不可预测的,他们称之为振荡,但它是非周期性振荡。”
After three to five years, the ENSO usually cycles to La Niña, when sea surface temperatures reach a low point. Gottschalck said this leads to more rainfall over Indonesia while weakening jet streams -- fast-moving, high-altitude air currents -- and pushing them further north. This leads to drier conditions in the southern United States.
通常ENSO的周期为3-5年,之后便会发生拉尼娜现象,使得海水表面温度达到低点。Gottschalc说,这将使得印度尼西亚的降雨量高于正常水平,同时减弱高空急流-快速移动的高空气流-并推动其向北部移动。这将使得美国南部干旱少雨。
Currently, the planet is in the middle of a La Niña phase, and parts of the American South, like Texas, experienced record drought last year.
目前,地球正处于拉尼娜阶段,这导致了美国南部如德克萨斯等地去年发生的创纪录的干旱。
Shifts in bird migrations create flu strains
鸟类的迁徙创造新的流感病毒株
These regular precipitation patterns change how migratory birds interact. The birds are vectors for the influenza virus. As their populations split off and reunite every few years due to ENSO, new flu strains emerge. \"Flu is interesting because it mutates all the time,\" explained Jeffrey Shaman, an assistant professor in the Environmental Health Sciences department at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University. The illness is transmitted through feces, fluids and aerosols.
这些定期变动的降雨格局改变了候鸟的迁徙模式。鸟类是流感病毒的传播者。它们将随着ENSO相位发生的变化而分开或聚集,从而导致新的流感病毒株的出现。哥伦比亚大学梅尔曼公共卫生学院环境卫生科学系助理教授Jeffrey Shaman说:“流感是有趣的,因为它每时每刻都在发生着变异,它是一种通过粪便,液体和气溶胶传播的疾病。”

pathogens=病原体
eg:The systems must remove pathogens.(这个系统可以杀灭病原体)

migration=迁移;迁徙
eg:the annual migration of birds.(候鸟每年的迁徙)

strain=拉紧;拖紧
eg:The heavy box strained the rope to a breaking point.(那只沉重的箱子几乎把绳子拉断)

department=系;【口头语】活动领域
eg:He\'s the head of the firm\'s personnel department.(他是公司人事部的负责人)

aerosols=气溶胶
eg:Aerosols are present throughout the atmosphere.(气溶胶存在于整个大气层)
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-2-5 07:16 | 显示全部楼层

厄尔尼诺气候模式在全球范围内可能影响疾病的暴发(中)

These two versions can then form hybrid viruses in a process known as reassortment. \"This reassortment happens more often than there are pandemics. In order for there to be a pandemic, there needs to be a radical change,\" said Shaman.
这种两种不同的病毒混合成杂交病毒的过程称为重组。Shaman说:“当这种重组发生时,往往会导致流行病大爆发,因为要导致流行病大爆发,这些病毒需要进行根本性的改变。”
The new virus can then spread to humans, rapidly infecting the population since few people are immune, with devastating results. For example, the 1918 global flu pandemic spread as far as the Arctic Circle and to isolated islands, killing up to 50 million people around the world, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Shaman said this pandemic was preceded by La Niña conditions.
新的病毒同样可以传染给人类,并且由于该病毒仅有少数人能够免疫,这将在人群中迅速传播,并导致灾难性的后果。例如,1918年的全球流感大流行,据美国卫生与人类服务部称,这次疫情最远蔓延到了北极圈内及海上孤岛,共造成了世界各地50万人死亡。Shaman说,在这场流行病发生之前出现了拉尼娜现象。
The other global flu pandemics over the past century -- in 1957, 1968 and 2009 -- also followed cooler sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean. Shaman and Marc Lipsitch at the Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics at the Harvard School of Public Health published their findings earlier this month in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
在过去一个世纪中,发生的多次全球性流感大流行-1957年,1968年和2009年-都跟太平洋海水表面温度的异常冷却有关。Shaman和哈佛大学公共卫生学院传染病动力学中心的Marc Lipsitch于本月早些时候在美国国家科学院院刊上发表了他们的研究结果。
Shaman said these pandemics don\'t emerge from La Niña itself, but from cyclical changes in the climate. \"Really, what we\'re talking about is the segregation of these birds and then reaggregating. If you were to lock in one phase, you would not see this pattern. I think it\'s the variability is quite important,\" he said.
Shaman说:“这些流行病并不是源于拉尼娜现象本身,而是源于气候的周期性变化,我们的意思是,倘若把这些鸟隔离起来。那么这个环节便会被切断,之后,你便不会看到这种模式。我认为研究鸟类迁徙的变异性是至关重要的。”
Predicting cholera outbreaks in Dhaka
预测达卡的霍乱疫情
Though the ENSO is hard to predict, there is some lag between a La Niña onset and an influenza pandemic, the former preceding the latter by three to six months. Shaman said this could help public health officials anticipate vaccination needs and increase their vigilance accordingly.
尽管ENSO仍难以预测,但流感大流行与拉尼娜现象发生的时间却有很大差距,一般这个差距为三至六个月。Shaman说,这将有助于公共卫生官员预测接种疫苗的需求并提高警惕。
Researchers have also found that ENSO patterns can be used to forecast cholera outbreaks 11 months in advance in Bangladesh\'s capital. \"Cholera is sort of a poster child for a climate variability-sensitive disease,\" said Aaron King, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and of mathematics at the University of Michigan. The disease lives in brackish water and is closely associated with rainfall linked to the ENSO, spreading through contaminated water and shellfish.
研究人员还发现,通过ENSO模式可以提前11个月来预测孟加拉国首都的霍乱疫情。密歇根大学生态学,生物进化学和数学教授Aaron King说:“霍乱是一种典型的对气候变化十分敏感的疾病。”这种疾病的病原体生活在咸水中,与ENSO造成的降雨模式密切相关,主要传播途径为受污染的水和贝类。

radical=根本的;彻底的;激进的

eg:do not share his radical views.(我不同意他的激进观点)

immune=免疫的;免除于
eg:The antigen could stimulate immune system in body.(这种抗原能刺激人体的免疫系统)

isolated=孤立的;隔离的
eg:The intransigent can be isolated.(不愿妥协的人便会被孤立)

variability=变化性;变异性
eg:We\'ve underestimated natural variability.(我们低估了自然的变异性)

vigilance=警惕;警觉
eg:We must never relax our vigilance.(我们决不可放松警惕)
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-2-5 18:43 | 显示全部楼层

厄尔尼诺气候模式在全球范围内可能影响疾病的暴发(下)

As the flu virus reproduces in its host, it changes over time. When carriers are separated, the virus mutates differently in the two groups. Once La Niña comes around, disparate bird populations start to mingle again, increasing the likelihood that a carrier is infected with more than one variety of the virus.
由于流感病毒在寄主体内时将会随着时间的推移而发生变异。当不同寄主分开时,2种宿主体内的病毒都会产生不同的变异。当拉尼娜现象发生时,世界各地不同的鸟类种群便会再次聚集,从而增加了寄主感染了多种不同病毒的可能性。
Looking at 12 years of data from Dhaka, the scientists examined where and when cholera was spreading. King said the city makes a good case study, since cholera originated in the region. The disease is endemic in Dhaka, which has 7 million densely packed residents and 12 million in its metropolitan area, according to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
科学家通过对达卡12年来的数据进行研究,以了解霍乱将在何时何地蔓延。King说,这个城市对于研究来说是一个很好的案例,因为霍乱源于该区域。孟加拉国统计局统计数据显示,这种发源于达卡的疾病影响了人口为700万的居民区及人口为1200万的都会区。
The disease was studied in the region for a long time, giving researchers a great deal of information to work with. \"Really, the reason why we focused on Dhaka was because that\'s where the data were the best,\" said King.
研究人员花了大量时间在该地区研究这种疾病,这项工作使他们得到了大量信息。King说:“我们之所以重点在达卡研究霍乱,是因为从这得出的数据是最好的。”
The team found that even though El Niño starts halfway around the world, its effects are very localized in the city, changing from one district to another on the scale of kilometers. \"It\'s based on where the water comes from for the different regions,\" said Robert Reiner Jr., a postdoctoral researcher in the department of entomology at the University of California, Davis. \"It seems that flooding itself correlates with El Niño effects [in] urban areas differently from less urban areas.\"
该研究小组发现,虽然厄尔尼诺现象能够影响全球的气候,但对某地的影响却仅仅局限于当地,甚至连相隔1公里的两个地区受到的影响也有所不同。加州大学戴维斯分校昆虫学系博士后研究员Robert Reiner Jr.说:“这建立在这两个地区水源不同基础上,这似乎与厄尔尼诺现象给不同地区带来的洪灾密切相关。”
Cholera patterns emerged, showing a higher incidence in more densely populated areas in the city\'s center compared to its outer regions in El Niño conditions. \"We weren\'t anticipating that there were going to be these two distinct regions,\" said Reiner, who was surprised to see that a global climate driver had such fine-scale consequences.
当厄尔尼诺现象发生时,通过数据可以得出,人口稠密的市中心的霍乱发病率明显高于城外。Reiner称:“我们没有想到这些地区发病率的差别将会如此之大。”他惊讶地发现,这种全球性的气候模式竟然会导致这么微妙的差别。
From the data, the researchers created and validated a model that links the ENSO to cholera. \"The purpose of the model is to predict the likelihood of an outbreak,\" said Reiner. \"ublic health officials can ensure they have enough supplies on hand. Even in a city where cholera is not rare, they run out of supplies.\"
通过这些数据,研究人员建构并验证了能够将ENSO与霍乱联系起来的模型。Reiner说:“建构该模型的目的是为了预测霍乱疫情爆发的可能性,使得公共卫生官员确保他们手头上有足够的药物供应。因为在某个城市出现霍乱疫情时却没有药物的状况并不少见。”
However, the planet\'s rising average temperature may alter these predictions. \"It\'s important to distinguish this stuff from climate change. There, the whole system is moving into uncharted territory,\" said King. Reiner, King and the rest of their team also published their findings last week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The researchers now plan to construct similar models for other cities throughout Southeast Asia.
然而,地球平均温度上升或将改变这些预测。King说:“我们需要区分气候变化和ENSO的变化,现在整个系统正在进入未知的领域。”Reiner,King和他们的团队上周在国家科学院论文集中发表了他们的研究成果。研究人员正计划在东南亚的其他城市建构类似的模型。

metropolitan=大都市的
eg:New york city is a metropolitan city in the united states.(纽约是美国的一个大都市)

halfway=中途的;不完全的;不彻底的
eg:Halfway measures won\'t solve the problem.(不彻底的措施将无法解决这一问题)

incidence=落下;影响;发生率
eg:There\'s a high incidence of heart disease there.(那个地方心脏病发病率很高)

consequence=结果;后果;重要
eg:He is a man of great consequence.(他是一个很重要的人物)

territory=领土;版图;领地
eg:They recaptured the lost territory.(他们收复了失地)
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-2-11 23:52 | 显示全部楼层

世界上最大的虚拟望远镜开始运行

Astronomers in Chile have created the world\'s largest virtual optical telescope by using a special technique to combine images from the four most powerful devices as if they were one.
智利的天文学家通过一项特殊的技术,将4台强大的望远镜的图像整合起来,从而形成一台世界上最大的虚拟光学望远镜。
\"This weekend we managed to finish the process (of merging the images) after almost a year,\" says Jean-Philippe Berger, a scientist at the European Southern Observatory which operates the Very Large Telescope array (VLT) in Chile\'s high northern desert
位于智利北部沙漠操作欧洲南方天文台甚大望远镜阵列(VLT)的科学家Jean-Philippe Berger说:“本周末,我们设法在近一年后完成了这个进程(图像整合)。”
\"For the first time, we made scientific observations through this new instrument, and we can say that it can be used.\"
“这是我们第一次通过这种新仪器进行科学观测,我们可以自豪地说,它可以使用。”
The VLT complex in Paranal includes four large optical telescopes, each of which are about 30 metres high and have mirrors eight metres in diameter.
位于帕拉那的甚大望远镜阵列(VLT)由多个望远镜综合而成,其中包括四个大型光学望远镜,高约30米,并配有直径8米的镜子。
The astronomers brought together the signals received by the four telescopes thanks to a technique known as interferometry, which combines the images from the four to achieve a higher resolution image.
天文学家通过一项称为“干涉”的技术,将来自四台望远镜的图像整合起来,整合后的图像达到了极高的分辨率水平。
This creates a virtual mirror which is the equivalent of 130 metres in diameter and, according to Berger, improves the resolution and the ability to \"zoom\" in on the cosmos.
Berger称,这将形成一面直径为130米的虚拟的镜子,将会使得分辨率大大提升,并提高“放大”宇宙的能力。
\"We see the surface of stars, including objects that have never been observed before, such as some very young stars or galaxies,\" says Berger.
“我们将能够看到更多天体的表面,包括之前从未观察过的天体,如一些非常年轻的恒星以及星系。”Berger说。
\"It is very difficult to build large optical telescopes, so interferometry was used,\" he says. \"We have been working on this for a long time and are very excited to start doing science\" with it.
“由于这种大型光学望远镜十分难以建立,所以我们不得不采用“干涉”法。”他说:“我们已经在此工作了很长时间,当听到终于能够进行科学研究时感到非常的兴奋。”
The complex is operated by the ESO, created in 1962 and which has support from Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Britain, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.
该望远镜阵列由欧洲南方天文台于1962年设立,并受到奥地利,比利时,巴西,英国,捷克共和国,丹麦,芬兰,法国,德国,意大利,荷兰,葡萄牙,西班牙,瑞典和瑞士的支持。

optical=视觉的;光学的
eg:Microscopes and telescopes are optical instruments.(望远镜和显微镜是光学仪器)

merge=融合;同化;使合并
eg:The company was formed by merging three smaller firms.(该公司由三家小公司合并而成)

instrument=仪器;器具;器械;手段
eg:Language is an instrument for communication.(语言是交际的手段)

resolution=决心;决定;分辨率
eg:We have passed a resolution to build a new laboratory.(我们已通过决议建个新实验室)

complex=复杂的;难懂的
eg:It was a complex problem.(这是一个复杂的问题)
r892649_8982401.jpg
将四台望远镜的图像整合后,天文学家们能够创造出一台镜面直径130米的虚拟望远镜
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-3-3 20:30 | 显示全部楼层

世界银行对亚洲各个城市的洪水感到苦恼

TOKYO—\"Flooding is the most common of natural disasters [and] it is increasingly an Asian phenomenon,\" Abhas Jha, a World Bank disaster management expert, said today at a briefing here, while unveiling a \"tool kit\" for policy makers eager to counter the problem.
东京-“洪水是亚洲最为常见的自然灾害,且发生的频率正变得越来越高。”世界银行灾害管理专家Abhas Jha今天在通报会上说,同时发布了为决策者制作的“工具包”以解决该问题。
Flooding strikes worldwide, of course, but Jha presented eye-opening statistics indicating the developing countries of Asia are particularly vulnerable: The seven most destructive floods of the past 30 years all occurred in Asia. Over the same period, 90% of those killed or affected by floods lived in Asia. The region also got hit with about half of the total worldwide economic loss due to flooding. The future doesn\'t look much better: currently 80% of the population of Bangladesh is at risk of flooding and 70% of Vietnamese.
虽然全球都会受到洪水袭击,但Jha提供的数据却令人瞠目结舌,数据中表明亚洲的发展中国家在面对洪水时似乎显得尤为脆弱:在过去30年中,7场最具破坏性的洪水都发生在亚洲。在同一时期,因洪水而死或受洪水影响的人中有90%都生活在亚洲。在全球,洪水造成的经济损失中有一半左右都出现在这些地区。而未来情况似乎仍不容乐观:目前孟加拉国80%的人以及越南的70%的人都受到洪水的威胁。
The main reason for Asia\'s vulnerability to floods is the phenomenal movement of populations from rural areas to cities built on coasts and along rivers. \"This puts a lot of people in harm\'s way,\" said Jha, who is the lead author of Cities and Flooding: A Guide to Integrated Urban Flood Risk Management for the 21st Century. The new report was released in Tokyo to highlight its importance for Asia, said Pamela Cox, World Bank vice president for the East Asia and Pacific region.
亚洲在洪水面前表现得如此脆弱的主要原因是大量流动人口由农村向沿海及河流周边的城市迁移。“这将导致许多人处于危险之中。”《城市和洪水:21世纪城市防洪综合风险管理指南》的作者Jha说。世界银行亚太地区副总裁Pamela Cox说,这份新的报告之所以在东京公布,是为了显示其对亚洲的重要性。
Despite the focus on Asia, the report pulls together lessons on both flood causes and mitigation options from around the world. For example, deforestation upriver from cities and loss of wetlands can exacerbate the effects of heavy rains. Jha said that if more of coastal Louisiana\'s wetlands had been preserved, the Hurricane Katrina storm surge might have been 5 to 10 feet lower. He added that deforestation in northern Thailand was a major factor in last year\'s flooding in Bangkok.
尽管该报告针对的是亚洲,但其中洪水的原因和减灾方法却吸取了世界各地的经验教训。例如,湿地的消失及上游森林的砍伐加剧暴雨对城市的影响。Jha说,如果路易斯安那州的沿海湿地被保留下来,那么Katrina“卡特里娜”飓风的风暴潮可能将降低5至10英尺。他补充说,泰国北部的森林砍伐是造成去年曼谷洪水的一个主要因素。
Some urban areas are worsening their predicament by overusing groundwater, which often causes subsidence. Meanwhile, paving and development associated with urban growth increases rain runoff and hinders groundwater replenishment. And rapid urbanization often results in shantytowns near riverbanks and marshes. When flooding occurs, \"it\'s often the poor, especially women and children, who are most directly affected,\" Cox said. The dark cloud over all of this is global warming, which could produce more extreme weather events, the report notes.
某些城市地区为解决缺水的困境,过度汲取地下水,这往往将导致地面沉降。同时,道路和城市的发展将会增加地面径流,并妨碍地下水的补给。而迅速的城市化进程往往将导致棚户区迁往河岸与沼泽的附近。当洪水发生时,“这往往将对穷人,特别是妇女和儿童造成最直接的影响。”Cox说。报告中指出,笼罩在上述这些情况上空的乌云便是全球气候变暖,这将会导致更多极端天气事件的发生。
Just as there is typically no one single cause to an individual flood, there is no one-size-fits-all solution to preventing or limiting their damage. \"Each flood is different,\" Jha said. Mitigation requires integrating the efforts of a wide range of scientists, engineers, and social scientists to create flooding hazard maps to guide urban planning, develop watershed management strategies, deploy early warning systems, and plan for evacuations. The World Bank report concludes it makes sense to concentrate mitigation efforts on Asia because many countries are still at an early stage of urbanization. \"There is an opportunity to build this sort of risk planning into urbanization, it\'s harder to do after the fact,\" Cox said. Jha added that the report\'s findings will guide World Bank support for development programs.
正如通常每次洪水都不是单个原因所导致的,所以并没有一个放之四海而皆准的解决方案,以防止或限制洪水带来的损失。Jha表示:“每个洪水都是不同的”。若需减少洪水带来的损失,则需许多科学家,工程师和社会学家共同创建出洪水危险地区示意图,以指导城市规划,发展流域管理战略,部署早期预警系统并制定出疏散计划。世界银行的报告得出结论,为减少亚洲地区灾害的努力是有意义的,因为亚洲的许多国家仍然处于城市化初期阶段。“在城市化进程中融入这种风险规划十分容易,但当城市化进程完成后再做便变得十分困难。”Cox说。Jha补充到,该报告的结果将指导世界银行支持发展项目。

management=管理;经营;处理
eg:Management was feeble and cowardly.(管理部门软弱无力且胆小怕事)

eye-opening=使瞠目结舌;使大开眼界
eg:That\'s a real eye-opening experience.(那次经历真令人大开眼界)

destructive=破坏的;毁灭性的
eg:It was the most destructive storm in 30 years.(那是三十年来最具破坏性的风暴)

vulnerability=易受伤;弱点
eg:You shouldn\'t take advantage of someone else\'s vulnerability.(你不应利用别人的弱点)

deforestation=砍伐森林
eg:Deforestation is causing a loss of biological diversity on an unprecedented scale.(砍伐森林正造成规模空前的生物多样性缺失)
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-3-3 20:36 | 显示全部楼层

天塌下来了——新的研究发现地球上的云层高度正在降低

New research has found clouds are dropping closer to the Earth, with scientists measuring their height for the first time on a global basis.
在一项新的研究中,当科学家对比全球云层的高度时,他们首次发现云层高度正在降低。
Experts from the University of Auckland suggest the change in cloud altitude could be the Earth\'s way of dealing with global warming.
来自奥克兰大学的专家称,云层高度的降低可能是地球应对全球气候变暖的方式。
In 1999, NASA launched its Terra satellite into space. On board was a Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR).
1999年,美国航空航天局将Terra卫星送入太空。卫星上搭载有多角度成像光谱仪(MISR)。
It uses nine cameras at different angles to produce a stereo image of clouds around the world, allowing measurement of their altitude and movement.
它采用9台不同角度的摄像机,以生成世界各地云层的立体图像,并测量云层的高度及运动。
Researchers at the university studied the measurements taken over a decade.
该大学的研究人员研究了超过十年的云层测量数据。
Lead researcher Professor Roger Davies says over the past 10 years clouds have lowered in altitude.
首席研究员Roger Davies教授说,过去10年中,云层的高度正在降低。
\"About 30 to 40 metres, just depending on how you did it. And that\'s actually a little bit more than would be needed to compensate for the effective increased CO2 over the same 10 years,\" he said.
“云层离地高度约下降了30-40米,这种变化实际在一定程度上是为了平衡10年以来人类向大气中排放的二氧化碳量的增加。”他说。
He says researchers are unsure why it is happening, but that it is most likely due to a change in the circulation of the atmosphere.
他说,研究人员无法确定这种变化的发生原因,但它最有可能是由于大气环流的改变。
\"You need to get rising air to form a cloud and if the winds aren\'t quite strong enough, then you won\'t get that. And so we suspect that\'s the cause but we don\'t know quite the details and how that was actually happening.\"
“我们已经知道,云层的形成需要足够猛烈的上升气流,若上升气流不够猛烈,云层便不会形成,因此我们怀疑云层离地高度下降是由某种我们不知道而又确实存在的细节所导致的。”
Professor Davies says if the clouds continued to drop, global warming would slow down.
Davies教授说,若云层高度持续下降,那么全球变暖的步伐将会放缓。
\"The C02\'s increasing all the time and that\'s tending to heat the planet up and raise surface temperatures, and this is a cooling mechanism,\" he said.
“二氧化碳浓度增加将使地球表面温度升高,而云层高度下降的功能恰好与之相反。”他说。
\"It\'s not strong enough to make the temperatures come down again, but it may slow how quickly they rise.\"
“虽然这不足以使得气温再次开始回落,但它很有可能会放缓全球变暖的步伐。”
He says in the next 10 years scientists will gain more confidence in whether the drop is a response by the clouds to surface temperatures.
他说,在未来10年中,科学家将使用更多的资料来判断云层高度下降是否对气温造成影响。
\"It could be just a one-off. It could be just a 10 years just doing the low thing and if it goes back up again then it wouldn\'t have such a strong effect,\" he said.
“上个10年中,云层高度的下降有可能仅为个例。若未来10年中云层高度回到过去的水平,那么它便不会影响气候变暖的步伐”他说。
\"So that\'s why we\'re going to be very interested in looking at this over the next 10 years.\"
“所以我们对未来10年中云层高度的变化很感兴趣。”
But never fear, Professor Davies says our heads won\'t literally get to the point that they\'re in the clouds.
但我们也不必害怕,Davies教授说,即使云层的高度再低它也不会碰到你的头。

altitude=高度;海拔
eg:The plane was flying at an altitude of 8000 feet.(飞机正在八千英尺的高空中飞行)

stereo=立体声;立体照片
eg:This color tv is stereo.(这部彩电是立体声的)

researcher=研究员;调查者
eg:He was a former university professor and researcher.(他曾担任过大学教授及研究员)

actually=实际上;真的
eg:Did you actually see him break the window?(你真的看到他打破了窗户吗)

response=回答;答复
eg:He made no response to my question.(他对我的问题不予回答)
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层主吃了一斤小苹果 感觉自己萌~萌~哒~ (*/ω\*)
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