台风论坛

 找回密码
 立即注册
搜索
热搜: 台风
查看: 2164|回复: 7

[机构公布] WMO--2011-2012冬:欧洲与亚洲寒流概述

[复制链接]

1572

主题

2万

帖子

5万

积分

终身荣誉-风之图腾

积分
51095

钻石勋章资料控

发表于 2012-3-13 23:42 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
欢迎翻译,最好意译,直译也可,但不要用谷歌翻译机,翻译者请跟帖在后面,本贴价值贡献+30,好评+30
dwd_2012_report.pdf (2.38 MB, 下载次数: 0)
回复

使用道具 举报

70

主题

2448

帖子

0

积分

台风

积分
0
发表于 2012-3-14 09:49 | 显示全部楼层
Cold spell in Europe and Asia in late winter 2011/2012
关于2011—2012年冬末在欧亚大陆出现的持续严寒天气的报告
Issued by WMO Regional Climate Centres:
· RA II (Asia): Tokyo Climate Centre, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
· RA VI (Europe): Pilot Regional Climate Centre, node on Climate Monitoring
(RCC-CM), Lead Centre Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), Germany

由世界气象组织区域气候中心发布:
· RA II (亚洲) :东京气候中心,日本气象厅(JMA)
· RA VI (欧洲):区域导航气候中心,主要工作是气候监测(RCC-CM),由德国气象中心领导


Sudden cooling in late January 2012
2012年1月后期气温急剧下降

After unusually mild weather in December 2011 and early January 2012 almost all over Europe, the weather situation changed abruptly in the second half of January. An incursion of cold polar air, coming from northern Russia at the south flank of an extensive high pressure area brought a sudden cooling to almost the whole Eurasian continent (Fig. 1). Temperatures had been extremely low from the northern part of East Asia to Central Asia (in and around Mongolia and Kazakhstan, Fig. 2) since mid-January. Some days later, at the end of January and the beginning of February, the influence of cold air extended to Central, Western and Southern Europe as well as to all over Central Asia, such as Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
欧洲大部分地区在经历了2011年12月及2012年1月上半月不同寻常的温暖后,天气状况在1月下半月发生了急剧的转变。由于一次从北俄罗斯庞大高压侧翼南下的极地冷空气的入侵,欧亚大陆经受了由温暖向寒冷的突然转变(图1)。从一月中期以来,东北亚和中亚北部的气温一直极端低迷(蒙古国和哈萨克斯坦附近,图2)。过了几天,在1月末2月初,冷空气的影响扩展到中西欧,南欧以及整个中亚地区,例如乌兹别克斯坦和塔吉克斯坦。
During that cold spell, also some considerable snowfall occurred over various parts of the continent. In the first half of February, the cold wave started weakening first in Asia and in mid-February also in Europe.
欧亚大陆大部在这段寒冷期内都出现降雪。二月的上半月,寒流的影响首先退出亚洲,接着欧洲也于二月中旬逐渐回暖。
图1.jpg
图1 1月15日—2月18日北半球气温周距平(单位℃)(基于SYNOP报告)。                来源:日本气象厅
图2.jpg
图2 2012年1月15日—2月19日(a)乌兰巴托(蒙古国)(b)阿斯塔纳(哈萨克斯坦)的日最高温度,平均温度和最低温度(根据SYNOP报告)                来源:日本气象厅
该来的总会来的。
回复

使用道具 举报

70

主题

2448

帖子

0

积分

台风

积分
0
发表于 2012-3-14 09:50 | 显示全部楼层
Blocking Siberian high and intense Mediterranean low
西伯利亚阻塞高压和强烈发展的地中海低压

The Siberian high pressure system prevented mild marine air masses and North Atlantic storms from crossing Europe eastward. This “blocking system”, which was fully developed around 25 January, was extremely large in its extent that time (Fig. 3). However, such a phenomenon is not unusual in a Northern hemisphere winter. A similar high pressure “blocking” situation also led to the cold winter of 2009/2010, when cold conditions started in mid December and continued over most of January and February.
西伯利亚阻塞高压使温暖的海洋气团和及北大西洋的风暴系统无法东移动穿越欧洲。这个“阻塞系统”在1月25日左右发展成熟,并且个头非常巨大(图3)但是,这并不是北半球冬天的正常的情况。一个类似的阻塞高压系统导致了2009/2010的严冬,当时偏冷的状况从12月中旬起一直持续到2月。
On the other hand, several intense low pressure systems developed over the Mediterranean, causing unusually cold and snowy weather across south-eastern Europe and Turkey.
另一方面,在地中海数次出现的低压系统给东南欧地区和土耳其带来了不同寻常的暴风雪天气和严寒。
图3.jpg
图3 2012年1月31日 12:00(格林尼治时间)的天气图                来源:德国气象局

Low temperature minima and ongoing frost throughout Europe
极端低温和持续的霜冻侵袭欧洲

In the last few days of January and at the beginning of February 2012, extremely cold continental air from Russia brought ongoing frost to eastern, southeastern, central and large parts of western Europe. Minimum temperatures in Moscow went down from -3°C on 14 January to -25°C until the beginning of February; more northern, western, southern and southeastern parts of Europe experienced a similar temperature drop some days later (Fig. 4).
欧洲在1月末和2月初的几天里都极为寒冷。来自俄罗斯的大陆冷空气给东欧、东南欧、中欧以及西欧的大部分地区带来了持续的严寒和霜冻。莫斯科的最低气温由1月14日的-3°C降至2月初的-25°C;北欧、西欧、东南欧及南欧的部分地区在随后的几天内气温也降至类似的程度。(图4)
The minimum temperature dropped even below the 2% percentile in places, e.g. in Belgrade, Serbia (Fig. 5).
有些地区最低气温的负距平甚至高于2%,例如塞尔维亚的贝尔格莱德(图5)。
图4-1.jpg
图4-2.jpg
图4-3.jpg
图4 2011年12月1日—2012年2月29日选取地点的最低气温随时间变化曲线
来源:德国气象局和塞尔维亚共和国水文气象服务局

图5.jpg
图5 2011年12月1日至2012年2月29日塞尔维亚贝尔格莱德日最低气温变化曲线和1961—1990的平均气温和距平

Several East European countries (Baltic countries, Belarus, northeastern Poland, Ukraine, northern Moldova, southern European Russia) experienced minimum temperatures of around -30 °C, places in northern Sweden, northern Finland and northern and central Russia below -40 °C (Fig. 6). In eastern Central Europe, minimum temperatures below -20 °C were measured in many places, in western Central Europe between -10 °C and -20 °C (e.g. Amsterdam -18.7 °C, Zurich -18.1 °C). The cold air extended even to southern Europe. Minima below -15 °C were recorded in several places around Turin in northern Italy. The Balkan Peninsula had minima mostly below -10 °C, locally below -30 °C in highlands of Romania and Turkey and down to around -24 °C in northern Greece and northern Serbia.
一些东欧国家(波罗的海沿岸国家,白俄罗斯,乌克兰,波兰东北部,摩尔多瓦北部,俄罗斯欧洲部分的南部地区)最低气温达到-30℃左右,在瑞典北部,芬兰北部和俄罗斯北部和中部的一些地方甚至达到-40℃以下(图6)。在东中欧,大片地区的最低气温突破-20℃,在中西欧也普遍在-10℃——-20℃之间(例如阿姆斯特丹-18.7℃,苏黎世-18.1°C)冷空气甚至侵袭到南欧地区,在意大利北部都灵地区记录到低于-15℃的极端气温。巴尔干半岛大多数地区气温低于-10°C,在罗马尼亚和土耳其的局部高原地区气温低于-30°Ç,在希腊北部和塞尔维亚北部,气温也达到-24℃左右。
However, most of these minimum temperatures were not new records. Local records were broken e.g. in Estonia, Bulgaria and Serbia.
然而,这些地区大多未刷新最低气温记录。但也有某些地方刷新了纪录,例如爱沙尼亚,保加利亚和塞尔维亚。
The mean minimum temperature during the cold spell was below 0°C almost throughout Europe (Fig. 7). In eastern, central and southeastern Europe it was even below -10 °C, in northern Scandinavia and Eastern Europe below -20 °C. Normally, mean February minimum temperatures are above 0°C in western and southern Europe, and normals below -20°C over large areas are only to be found in the highlands of Greenland (Fig. 8). The mean minimum temperature of the cold spell in Berlin was lower than the normal mean minimum in Moscow.
寒流袭港期间,平均最低气温低于0°C的地区几乎遍及欧洲(图7)。欧洲东部,中部和东南部的平均气温均低于-10°C,斯堪的纳维亚北部和东欧最低气温甚至低于-20℃。而西欧和南欧2月的平均最低气温通常保持在0℃以上,只有在格陵兰岛的高地才会有大片低于-12℃(图8)。寒流侵袭期间,柏林的平均最低气温甚至低于莫斯科往年的平均最低气温。
图6.jpg
图6 2012.1.25—2012.2.16极端日最低气温                来源:德国气象局
图7.jpg
图7 2012.1.25—2012.2.16平均日最低气温                来源:德国气象局
图8.jpg
图8 1961--1990月平均最低气温                来源:德国气象局
该来的总会来的。
回复

使用道具 举报

70

主题

2448

帖子

0

积分

台风

积分
0
发表于 2012-3-14 09:51 | 显示全部楼层
This period was colder than normal almost throughout Europe, displaying the large extent of the cold spell (Fig. 9). Most areas were even more than 5 °C colder than normal; the peak minima even 10 °C (Fig. 10), which is very extreme at least for central and southern Europe.
Maximum temperatures remained below 0 °C (defining ice days) during several successive days almost throughout Europe (Fig. 11). This is usual for areas in northern and eastern Europe, but not necessarily for western and southern parts where normally not more than 5 ice days (days with a maximum temperature below 0 °C) are recorded on average (Fig. 12). Prolonged frost occurred even in large parts of southern Europe and the Middle East. Eastern Central Europe had nearly 20 successive ice days during the cold spell; the February normal is around 10. Likewise, the long frost period over the Balkan Peninsula and around the Black Sea was highly unusual. Parts of the Black Sea were frozen.
寒流影响期间,欧洲几乎所有地区的气温都是处在负距平的状况。(图9
大部分地区甚至负距5℃以上,高山上负距可达10℃(图10),这都是非常罕见的,至少对于中欧和南欧的地区来说。
在连续的几天里,欧洲大部最高气温维持在0℃以下(定义为冰日),这在北欧和东欧很常见,但在西欧和南欧的部分地区,平均记录是不多于5个冰日(图12)。
在南欧和中东的广大地区,霜冻期甚至都延长了。中东欧在这次寒冷期有将近20个冰日,而2月里平均只有10个左右。同样,出现在巴尔干半岛和黑海沿岸的长冰霜期都是极不寻常的。黑海部分海域都结了冰。
Mild Arctic
In contrast, low pressure systems carried mild air across the North Atlantic northward via <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Iceland to the Arctic region. The temperatures in Svalbard, far north in the Arctic, reached repeatedly up to 5 °C in that time, being higher than in Milano (Italy) or in Istanbul (Turkey) at that time. During the cold spell period Svalbard, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Iceland, northern and western <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Ireland as well as several coasts of western and northern Scandinavia and northern <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Russia recorded above-average temperatures (Fig. 9) due to low pressure influence in these regions. The highest positive anomalies were registered in Svalbard; it was around 15° C warmer than normal there.
The change in pressure pattern is well pronounced in the switch of the so-called Arctic Oscillation which reflects the difference in pressure between polar areas and mid-latitude areas. On 22 January, the Arctic Oscillation turned to a distinctively negative mode, which is connected with cold conditions in Europe and relatively warm conditions in the Arctic.
温暖的北极
与上述相反,低压系统携带温暖的空气向北通过北大西洋和冰岛到达北极地区。
时纬度非常高的斯瓦尔巴德群岛经常性的达到5℃,甚至高于当时米兰(意大利)和伊斯坦布尔(土耳其)的温度。在寒流影响期间,斯瓦尔巴群岛,冰岛,爱尔兰北部和西部以及斯堪的纳维亚西部和北部的几个沿海地区和俄罗斯北部录得高于平均水平的气温(图9)这是由于影响这些地区的低气压导致的。最严重的正距平出现在斯瓦尔巴群岛:那里比平常要高出15
我们通常把这种气压类型的转换叫做北极涛动,它反映了北极和中纬度地区的气压差。在1月22日,北极涛动表现为典型的负相位,这与欧洲大陆严寒和北极地区的相对偏暖是有联系的。


图9.jpg

Figure 9 Anomalies of mean daily minimum temperature in the period 25 January – 16 February 2012 (1961-1990 reference)
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst
9  125—216日的日最低平均气温距平(按照1961—1990年数据为基准)
来源:德国气象局
图10.jpg

Figure 10 Anomalies of absolute daily minimum temperature in the period 25 January –16 February 2012 (1961-1990 reference)
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Germany
10 125—216日的日极端最低气温距平(按照1961—1990年数据为基准)
来源:德国气象局
图11.jpg
Figure 11 Number of ice days (maximum temperature < 0°C) in the period 25 January –16 February 2012
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst
11 125—216日间冰日数(最高气温< 0°C
来源:德国气象局
图12.jpg
Figure 12 Mean number of ice days (maximum temperature < 0°C) in February (1961-1990 reference)
Source: European Climate Assessment ; Dataset (ECA;D)
12 2月平均冰日数(最高气温< 0°C)(按照1961—1990年数据为基准)
来源:欧洲气候评估和数据中心
该来的总会来的。
回复

使用道具 举报

70

主题

2448

帖子

0

积分

台风

积分
0
发表于 2012-3-14 09:53 | 显示全部楼层
Widespread snowfall
Though high pressure influence prevailed, there were some lows causing widespread snowfall (Fig. 13 and 14). A small low e.g. was responsible for a snow cover of 10-15 cm on the island Rügen in the German Baltic Sea on 3 February. Heavy snow fell also on the windward slopes of the Alps. The highest German mountain Zugspitze (nearly 3,000 m altitude) reported 5 metres of snow on 25 January - the deepest snow cover in 30 years (Fig. 15). This snow, however, already came before the cold spell arrived in southern <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Germany. During the cold spell itself, the snow cover on Zugspitze decreased gradually.
大范围的暴风雪
尽管高压覆盖范围很大,但仍有一些低气压在制造广泛的降雪(图13和图14),一个小型的低压系统在23日给德国在波罗的海的岛屿吕根岛带来了10—15cm的降雪。在阿尔卑斯山的迎风坡也出现了暴雪天气。而在德国最高山峰楚格峰(海拔将近3000m)则观测到深达5米的积雪-这是30年以来最深的积雪(图15)。不过,这些雪是在寒流来之前下的。在寒流来临后,楚格峰上的雪在逐渐减少。
Cold air together with a strong moisture flux from the central Mediterranean Sea caused heavy snowfall over parts of southeastern Europe such as the Balkans, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Romania, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Bulgaria and <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Turkey. But also <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Italy, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Spain, and even parts of northern Africa reported snowfall. <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Italy and the Balkan Peninsula suffered from snowstorms over and near the Adriatic Sea. Snow depths between 10 and 20 cm occurred in southern <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">France, northern <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Italy and northern <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Greece, which is not unusual for the Mediterranean region. Even the western Mediterranean islands had snow, e.g. Corsica and Mallorca. Locally the snow depths were very high. Around 2m were measured in some places in eastern parts of <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Italy near Rimini, exceeding the depths in the winters 1929 and 1956. Snow on the Balkan Peninsula was widespread and particularly abundant; deep snow covers of 50-100 cm were reported in many places and over 100 cm in mountain regions of southeastern Europe (Fig. 16). Eastern Turkey received up to 3 m of snow in valleys in 1000-1500 m altitude and up to 6 m in higher mountains.
冷空气和来自地中海的大量水汽给在欧洲东南部的部分地区带来的大的降雪,如巴尔干地区,罗马尼亚,保加利亚和土耳其。甚至在意大利、西班牙和北非的部分地区都下了雪。
亚得里亚海附近的意大利和巴尔干半岛遭受了暴风雪的侵袭。在法国南部、意大利北部和希腊北部,雪深在10cm-20cm之间,这在地中海地区是罕见的。甚至地中海西部的岛屿都下了雪,例如科西嘉岛和马洛卡,局部地区积雪颇厚。在意大利东部里米尼地区测量到2m厚的积雪这超过了1929年和1956年的记录。巴尔干半岛大部分地区都降下大雪,一些地区雪深有50—100cm,在南欧的一些山区雪深可达100cm以上(图16)。土耳其东部海拔在1000m-1500m的山谷中有3m的积雪,而在一些山上有6m以上的积雪
However, it is remarkable for that event that some areas in western and central Europe hardly had any snow or only during a short time, but low temperatures occurred even in those areas. Snow has a high reflectivity for solar radiation (albedo) which prevents the earth’s surface from warming. The emissivity of terrestrial longwave radiation, too, is very high compared to snowless soils, causing a significant cooling at nights. Therefore usually temperatures are lower over snow covered surfaces than on snowless ones. This time, cooling was produced even without snow.
但是,值得注意的是在西欧和中欧的一些地区尽管很冷,但是几乎没有降雪或降雪时间很短。雪对于太阳辐射有很高的反射率,这可以阻止地球表面变得更暖。与无雪的地方相比,有雪的地面长波辐射率也更高,这会造成夜晚的明显降温。所以在被积雪覆盖的地区气温往往更低。而这一次,无雪的地区气温照样低迷。
图13.jpg
Figure 13 Maximum snow depth in the period 01 December – 29 February 2012
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst
13 121—229日的最大积雪深度
来源:德国气象局
图14.jpg
Figure 14 Number of days with snow on the ground in the period 01 December - 29
February 2012
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst
14 121—229日的降雪日数
来源:德国气象局
图15-1.jpg


Figure 15 Time series of daily snow depth in the period 01 December 2011 - 29 February2012 for selected stations
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst (<st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Germany) and Republic Hydrometeorological
Service of <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Serbia
15 121—229日选取站点积雪深度日际变化曲线
来源:德国气象局和塞尔维亚共和国水文气象服务中心
图16.jpg
Figure 16 Snow depth on 13 February 2012 in <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Serbia
Source: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Serbia
16: 2012213日塞尔维亚的积雪深度
来源:塞尔维亚共和国水文气象服务中心
图15-2.jpg
图15-3.jpg
该来的总会来的。
回复

使用道具 举报

70

主题

2448

帖子

0

积分

台风

积分
0
发表于 2012-3-20 16:22 | 显示全部楼层
这个翻译得暂时搁浅了,前天开始左眼睛上面疼得厉害,昨天上面又肿了,左眼完全打不开,打了消炎针肿胀基本消了,但拍了磁共振,却发现里面有异常阴影 ,明天估计还得拍个ct,看清楚阴影是啥。
该来的总会来的。
回复

使用道具 举报

70

主题

2448

帖子

0

积分

台风

积分
0
发表于 2012-3-30 10:05 | 显示全部楼层
眼睛暂时是没有问题了,再发一段。最后一段明天再说。

End of the cold spell
On 13 February the high pressure area over Europe retreated and low pressure systems from the northwest moved over Scandinavia to Western and Central Europe. Temperatures started to exceed 0°C in southern Scandinavia and northern Central Europe. Slight snowfall occurred in these areas, followed by rain with increasing temperatures. The Arctic Oscillation returned to normal values around zero.
寒冷期的尾声
213日,盘旋在欧洲大陆的冷高压开始减弱,而低压系统则从西北通过斯堪的纳维亚半岛来到中西欧的上空。在斯堪的纳维亚半岛南部和中欧北部,气温开始突破0℃。这些地方随着气温的上升,小雪逐渐转为下雨。而北极涛动指数则回归到0左右。
The cold spell went on some days longer in eastern and southern Europe with still low
minima and in the southeast abundant snowfalls. However, until the end of February temperatures returned to the same high level as before the cold spell almost throughout Europe and snow covers were decreasing.
在东欧和南欧的地区,寒冷依旧持续,依然很低的温度并伴随大量的降雪。但是,到了2月底,气温回归到像先前一样的高水平,积雪覆盖范围也在缩小。
The duration of the cold wave on the whole was about 3 weeks in Europe (25 October – 16 February), but not all of Europe experienced it for the whole time. The main period, when temperatures were extremely low in most of Europe was about 2 weeks (31 January – 13 February).
欧洲大约经历了3周的寒冷期(1.25—2.16),但不是欧洲的每一个地方都经历了那么长的寒冷,欧洲最冷的期间大约有两周(1.31—2.13
Damage and impacts on daily life
对日常生活的影响
Although this cold spell was not the most severe since the last century, it was nevertheless a very serious one because it caused many fatalities, economical losses and much discomfort to daily life.
尽管这次的寒冷程度并不是上个世纪以来最严重的,但也是非常严重的一次,因为它带来了非常多的人员伤亡和财产损失,以及生活的诸多不便。
Health problems and accidents were the most serious cases. Throughout Europe (particularly in <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">oland, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Russia, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Ukraine, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Romania, but also in many other countries), many deaths due to freezing were to be mourned, especially among homeless people. Furthermore, medical treatment of frostbite, undercooling and fractures was requested in many cases. Malfunctioning carbon stoves caused numerous cases of carbon monoxide contamination, e.g. in <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">oland. Avalanches in the Alps caused further fatalities. In <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Italy, people died because roofs broke down due to heavy snow loads. According to several media reports, altogether more than 600 people died in Europe due to that cold spell.
健康问题和交通事故是最好的例子。在整个欧洲(特别是在俄罗斯,乌克兰,罗马尼亚,波兰,而且许多其他国家也存在)许多人饮寒冷而死去,尤其是那些无家可归者。此外,在许多地方存在冻伤,过冷和骨折的治疗请求。无人看管的碳炉,造成了大量的一氧化碳中毒事件,如在波兰。而阿尔卑斯山的雪崩造成大量的伤亡。在意大利,由于大雪负荷大,把屋顶压垮了压死了在里面的人。据多家据媒体报道,在欧洲,由于寒流,共有600多人死亡。
Traffic was much affected. Numerous accidents occurred due to slippery roads. In <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Romania, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Bulgaria and <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Montenegro, many national roads had to be closed. Buses in Istanbul had to stop service due to high snow loads on the roads. Many flights had to be cancelled or airports had to close temporarily, e.g. in the <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">United Kingdom, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">France, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Italy and <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Turkey (Istanbul). Belated arrivals of trains or even cancellations due to heavy snowfall were reported frequently. Ship traffic also was much affected on some rivers due to freezing, even on larger rivers, e.g. the Odra, Elbe and Danube. Ferries in the Aegean Sea had to be cancelled due to stormy winds.
交通受到很大影响。湿滑的路面导致发生许多事故。在罗马尼亚,保加利亚和黑山,许多道路被迫关闭。由于道路上的高雪荷载,伊斯坦布尔的公共汽车不得不停止服务。在英国,法国,意大利和土耳其(伊斯坦布尔),许多航班被迫取消或机场不得不暂时关闭。由于大雪,火车经常晚点或取消。一些河流因冻结,船舶交通也受到大的影响,即使在较大的河流,如奥得河,易北河和多瑙河。在爱琴海的渡轮由于暴风雨风不得不取消。
Daily life was affected notably. Many schools were closed for several days due to insufficient heating of the school buildings. In <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Serbia, the government ordered one week off work to save electricity. Households were cut off from electricity in many parts of Europe due to high snow loads, e.g. in southeastern <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">France including Corsica Island, and on the Balkan Peninsula. Snow bounded villages in <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Slovenia, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Bosnia and <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Serbia were isolated from the outside world; people had to be saved by helicopters or supplied with food.
对日常生活的影响也很显著。由于校舍供暖不足,许多学校被迫停课。塞尔维亚政府下令停止工作一个星期,以节省电力。,由于大雪,电力负荷太高,在欧洲许多地区,住户的电力被切断,如在法国东南部的科西嘉岛,巴尔干半岛。而在斯洛文尼亚,波黑和塞尔维亚的一些村庄,几乎与外界隔绝的人们必须依赖直升机供应食物。
In some southern parts of Europe (particularly in the Alpine region, on the western
Mediterranean islands, in northern <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Italy and the northern Balkan peninsula), the cold and snowy weather was related also with stronger-than-usual winds, which caused additional discomfort due to a high wind chill. Gusts of more than 125 km/h were measured in valleys in <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Slovenia, causing damage to agriculture due to wind erosion.
在欧洲南部一些地区(尤其是在高寒地区,以及在意大利西部和巴尔干半岛北部的地中海岛屿),寒冷,降雪,强风往往相伴而来,加剧了不适感。在斯洛文尼亚的山谷中有风速超过125公里/小时的阵风,这给农业造成大的损害。
该来的总会来的。
回复

使用道具 举报

70

主题

2448

帖子

0

积分

台风

积分
0
发表于 2012-3-31 16:24 | 显示全部楼层
终于翻译完了,不容易啊
Similar cold spells in the past and future
The long duration of the cold period, its relatively late onset and the extent of the cold area are exceptional, but not unique. Similar cold spells occurred several times during the past decades. In western and central Europe, for instance, far more severe cold waves occurred in the past in respect to both intensity and duration, e.g. in the 1940s, in February 1929 and 1956, January/February 1963 and the mid-1980s, but also in earlier time (Fig. 17-20). However, such cold waves were rare in recent years. Several places in Europe did not see lower temperatures than in February 2012 for more than 25 years. <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">France did not see such a cold spell since January 1987. Zurich in <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Switzerland and places in northern <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Italy were last colder in January 1985; other stations in northern <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Italy even had their lowest minima since 1956. Cold waves have become particularly rare since the mid-20th century at least in <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Switzerland, and since the 1990s also in whole western and central Europe, compared to the previous 100 years. There were long cold spells with deep snow covers in recent winters too, e.g. in January and December 2010, but the intensity was lower. The cold wave in February 2012 was one of the 10 most intense of such events in Zurich since 1864 and among the 5 most severe in <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">France since 1947. Regarding only the 10-day period 01-10 February, it was the coldest such period in Hamburg (<st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Germany) since 1947.
历史中类似的寒流
这种相对偏晚但持续时间长,影响范围大的寒冷是罕见的,但不是唯一的。类似的寒流在过去的几十年里发生了好几次。例如,在欧洲西部和中部,在过去发生过强度和持续时间更为严重的寒潮,例如:在1940年,在19292月和19561/19632月和80年代中期,而且在较早的时期也有(图17-20)。然而,这样的寒潮是近年来少有的。在欧洲的很多地方刷新了25年以来的低温记录。法国自19871月以来都没有经历如此严重的寒流。在瑞士苏黎世和意大利北部是自1985年来最冷的,甚至在意大利北部的某些站点经历了自1956年以来的最低温。至少在瑞士自从20世纪中叶以来寒潮已成为特别罕见的,整个欧洲西部和中部自从20世纪90年代以来与前100年相比也是如此。最近也存在过寒冷且积雪深厚的冬天,如在201012月和1月,但强度较低。20122月的寒潮是自1864年以来苏黎世10个最剧烈的寒潮之一,1947年以来法国最严重的5个寒潮之一。而对于21-10日这短短的10天,它是汉堡(德国)自1947年以来的最冷的时期。
图17.jpg

Figure 17 Cold waves in <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">France 1947-2012. The x-axis shows the duration of the cold spells, the y-axis the highest intensity. The diameter of the circles symbolizes the intensity over the whole of <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">France, which can be interpreted as the severity of the cold waves.
Source: Météo <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">France
17 法国19472012年的寒潮 x显示寒潮影响时间y轴的强度最高的时间圆的直径可以显示为寒潮的严重程度
资料来源:法国气象局
图18.jpg

Figure 18 Most extreme cold waves in the 20th century at the station Zurich-Fluntern in <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Switzerland in comparison to the cold wave in February 2012, displayed by time series of daily mean temperatures in January and February of the corresponding years.
Source: Meteo Swiss, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Switzerland
18 2月的寒潮与瑞士苏黎世20世纪最严重的几次寒潮相比
来源:瑞士气象局
图19.jpg

Figure 19 Mean temperature for the 10-day periods 01-10 February of the years 1891- 2012 in Hamburg, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Germany.
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst, <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Germany
19 德国汉堡1891—201221—10日的平均气温
来源:德国气象局
图20.jpg
Figure 20 Cold waves in Europe 1893-2012. The x-axis shows the duration of the cold spells, the y-axis the highest intensity. The cold wave 2012 is highlighted in red, the most recent cold waves in the 21st century in green; the others (in blue) represent the most intense cold waves since 1893. The duration is determined by the period when the minimum temperature in Potsdam (eastern <st1:country-region w:st=\"on\">Germany, located downstream of the airflow from Eastern Europe, time series starts in 1893) is below -10°C (minimum duration 6 days with interruptions up to 5 days). Note that this is only a rough estimate, which is not necessarily true for the whole area throughout Europe.
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst
20 1893-2012年欧洲的寒潮。X轴显示寒流期,Y轴显示程度。2012年的寒潮被标记为红色,21世纪的其他寒潮标记为绿色;其它(蓝色)代表从1893年以来最严重的几次寒潮。时期的选择取决于波茨坦最低气温是否低于10℃。所以说这只是一个粗略地估计,并不代表整个欧洲地区。
来源:德国气象局
There were also winters in the past with more ice days than this winter in eastern Central Europe, but such a long period of successive ice days was rare in recent time. According to Free University Berlin there was permanent frost for more than 30 successive days in the very cold winter 1946/47 and throughout the chilly February 1929 in Berlin.
在过去的冬天里有比这次更寒冷的,但是如此寒冷的冬天在最近很罕见。在1946-1947年那个非常寒冷的冬天里,柏林连续出现30多天冰日,而在19292月,柏林一直很冷。
Summing up, cold waves of such intensity, extent and duration have become less frequent in the light of global warming. If global warming goes on in future, a further decrease of frequency of such wintry cold waves will be expected, but nevertheless they will occur from time to time and we need to be prepared.
总的来说,在全球变暖的背景下,如此大规模的寒冷事件变得不再频繁。如果全球变暖的更多,我们可以预计到更少的冷冬,但是冷冬还会时不时的出现,我们需要做好准备。
该来的总会来的。
回复

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

本版积分规则

Archiver|手机版|小黑屋|台风论坛 ( 沪ICP备11041484号-3 )

GMT+8, 2020-2-28 00:50

Powered by Discuz! X3.4 Licensed

© 2001-2017 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表