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[机构公布] WMO annual statement confirms 2011 as 11th warmest

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匿名  发表于 2012-3-24 16:48 |阅读模式
Press Release No. 943
For use of the information media
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WMO annual statement confirms 2011 as 11th warmest on record

Climate change accelerated in 2001-2010, according to preliminary assessment




GENEVA, 23 MARCH 2012 (WMO) – The World Meteorological Organization’s Annual Statement on the Status of the Global Climate said that 2011 was the 11th warmest since records began in 1850. It confirmed preliminary findings that 2011 was the warmest year on record with a La Niña, which has a cooling influence. Globally-averaged temperatures in 2011 were estimated to be 0.40° Centigrade above the 1961-1990 annual average of 14°C.

Precipitation extremes, many of them associated with one of the strongest La Niña events of the last 60 years, had major impacts on the world. Significant flooding occurred on all continents, whilst major droughts affected parts of east Africa and North America. Arctic sea ice extent fell to near record-low levels. Global tropical cyclone activity was below average, but the United States had one of its most destructive tornado seasons on record.

The annual statement for 2011 was released for World Meteorological Day 23 March. In addition, WMO also announced preliminary findings of the soon to be released Decadal Global Climate Summary, showing that climate change accelerated in 2001-2010, which was the warmest decade ever recorded in all continents of the globe.

The rate of increase since 1971 has been “remarkable” according to the preliminary assessment. Atmospheric and oceanic phenomena such as La Niña events had a temporary cooling influence in some years but did not halt the overriding warming trend.

The “dramatic and continuing sea ice decline in the Arctic” was one of the most prominent features of the changing state of the climate during the decade, according to the preliminary findings. Global average precipitation was the second highest since 1901 and flooding was reported as the most frequent extreme event, it said.

The full report will be released later in the year following further analysis of data received from National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and collaborating monitoring agencies. The decadal summary aims to increase understanding of our varying and changing climate from a longer-term perspective and complements WMO’s annual reports.

“This 2011 annual assessment confirms the findings of the previous WMO annual statements that climate change is happening now and is not some distant future threat. The world is warming because of human activities and this is resulting in far-reaching and potentially irreversible impacts on our Earth, atmosphere and oceans,” said WMO Secretary-General Michel Jarraud.


Highlights

Temperatures:

The decade 2001-2010 was the warmest since records began in 1850, with global land and sea surface temperatures estimated at 0.46°C above the long-term average (1961-1990) of 14.0°C. Nine of these years were among the ten warmest on record. The warmest year on record was 2010, closely followed by 2005, with a mean temperature estimated at 0.53°C above the long-term average. It was the warmest decade ever recorded for global land surface, sea surface and for every continent.

Most parts of Canada, Alaska, Greenland, Asia and northern Africa recorded temperatures for the decade between 1°C and 3°C above the 1961-1990 average.

Nearly 90% of the countries involved in the assessment experienced their warmest decade on record.

The global temperature increase rate has been “remarkable” during the previous four decades, according to the preliminary summary. The global temperature has increased since 1971 at an average estimated rate of 0.166°C per decade compared to the average rate of 0.06 °C per decade computed over the full period 1881-2010.

(See Figures 1-3)

Precipitation

Global precipitation (rain, snow etc) over land in 2001-2010 was the second highest average after 1951-60 since 1901. Within this global average, there were big regional and annual differences.

Large parts of the Northern Hemisphere recorded wetter-than-average conditions during the decade, especially the eastern United States of America, northern and eastern Canada, and many parts of Europe and central Asia. South America, including Colombia, parts of northern and southern Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina experienced wetter-than-average conditions, as did most parts of South Africa, Indonesia and northern Australia.

In contrast, other regions experienced, on average, below normal precipitation. The western United States, southwestern Canada, Alaska, most parts of southern and western Europe, most parts of southern Asia, central Africa, central South America, and eastern and southeastern Australia were the most affected.

(See Figures 4 and 5)


Extreme Events

Numerous weather and climate extremes affected almost every part of the globe with flooding, droughts, cyclones, heat waves, and cold waves. Two exceptional heat waves hit Europe and Russia during summer 2003 and 2010 respectively with disastrous impacts and thousands of deaths and outbreaks of prolonged bush fires.

Flooding was the most reported extreme event during the decade with many parts of the world affected. Historical widespread and prolonged flooding affected Eastern Europe in 2001 and 2005, Africa in 2008, Asia (in particular Pakistan) in 2010 and India in 2005, and Australia in 2010.

A large number of countries reported extreme drought conditions, including Australia, eastern Africa, the Amazonia region and the western United States. Humanitarian consequences were significant in eastern Africa during the first half of the decade, with widespread shortage of food and loss of lives and livestock.

Forty-eight out of 102 countries (47 per cent) reported that their highest national maximum temperature was recorded in 2001-2010, compared to 20 per cent for 1991-2000 and around 10 per cent for the earlier decades.

The decade saw the highest level of tropical cyclone activity on record for the North Atlantic basin. In 2005 category 5 hurricane Katrina was the most costly hurricane to hit the United States, with a significant human toll of more than 1 800 deaths. In 2008, tropical cyclone Nargis was the worst natural disaster in Myanmar and the world’s deadliest tropical cyclone during the decade, killing more than 70 000 people.

(See Figures 6 and 7)


Sea Ice

The decline in the Arctic sea-ice, observed since the end of the 1960s, continued throughout 2001-2010. A historical low Arctic sea-ice extent at the melting period in September was recorded in 2007.

Arctic sea ice extent was again well below average in 2011. The seasonal minimum, reached on 9 September, was 4.33 million square kilometres (35% below the 1979-2000 average) according to the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center. This was the second-lowest seasonal minimum on record, 0.16 million square kilometres above the record low set in 2007. Sea ice volume was even further below average and was estimated at a new record low of 4200 cubic kilometres, surpassing the record of 4580 cubic kilometres set in 2010.

Satellites have shown the fluctuation in sea ice from year to year since 1972. According to scientific measurements, both the thickness and sea ice extent in the Arctic have shown a marked decline over the past 35 years. Data indicate, however, an even more dramatic reduction in Arctic sea ice cover in recent years. The last six years of the decade (2005 to 2010) recorded the lowest five September extents, with 2007 recording the record minimum extent with 4.28 million km2, 39 % below the 1979-2000 reference period.
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-3-24 16:49 | 显示全部楼层
世界气象组织的年度状况声明确认2011年为第11最热年
根据初步评估, 2001-2010年气候变化加速
cover_1085.jpg


GENEVA, 23 MARCH 2012 (WMO) – The World Meteorological Organization’s Annual Statement on the Status of the Global Climate said that 2011 was the 11th warmest since records began in 1850. It confirmed preliminary findings that 2011 was the warmest year on record with a La Niña, which has a cooling influence. Globally-averaged temperatures in 2011 were estimated to be 0.40° Centigrade above the 1961-1990 annual average of 14°C.

2012年3月23日(WMO)日内瓦 - 世界气象组织的年度全球气候状况声明说,2011年是自1850年开始有记录以来的第11最热年。它确认初步的结果,2011年是记录以来最热的拉尼娜年。2011年全球平均气温比1961-1990年度平均的14°C估计高出了0.40°C。

Precipitation extremes, many of them associated with one of the strongest La Niña events of the last 60 years, had major impacts on the world. Significant flooding occurred on all continents, whilst major droughts affected parts of east Africa and North America. Arctic sea ice extent fell to near record-low levels. Global tropical cyclone activity was below average, but the United States had one of its most destructive tornado seasons on record.

过去60年来与最强烈的拉尼娜现象有关联的事件之一,极端强降水在全球上产生了重要影响。各大洲都发生过重大洪灾,而严重的旱灾影响非洲东部和北美洲的部分地区。北极海冰面积降至接近最低记录水平。全球热带气旋活动低于平均水平,但美国经历了记录上最具破坏力的龙卷风季节之一。

The annual statement for 2011 was released for World Meteorological Day 23 March. In addition, WMO also announced preliminary findings of the soon to be released Decadal Global Climate Summary, showing that climate change accelerated in 2001-2010, which was the warmest decade ever recorded in all continents of the globe.

3月23日世界气象日发布了2011年度报告。此外,WMO还宣布了即将公布的全球气候年代际概要的初步结论,表明2001至2010年,在全球各大洲的气候变化加快,是有史以来最热的十年。

The rate of increase since 1971 has been “remarkable” according to the preliminary assessment. Atmospheric and oceanic phenomena such as La Niña events had a temporary cooling influence in some years but did not halt the overriding warming trend.

根据全球气候年代际概要的初步结论,自1971年以来率的增幅一直 “惊人”。大气和海洋的部分年代虽然暂时受拉尼娜事件的降温影响,但并没有使明显的气候变暖趋势止步。

The “dramatic and continuing sea ice decline in the Arctic” was one of the most prominent features of the changing state of the climate during the decade, according to the preliminary findings. Global average precipitation was the second highest since 1901 and flooding was reported as the most frequent extreme event, it said.

根据全球气候年代际概要的初步结论,“北极急剧和持续的海冰下降”是10年期间气候变化状态最突出的特点之一。它说,全球平均降水量是1901年以来的第二个最高和洪涝是报告发生最多的极端事件。

The full report will be released later in the year following further analysis of data received from National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and collaborating monitoring agencies. The decadal summary aims to increase understanding of our varying and changing climate from a longer-term perspective and complements WMO’s annual reports.

从国家气象和水文服务以及监测机构合作接收到的数据进行进一步分析后,全球气候年代际概要的完整报告将在今年晚些时候发布。年代际概要,旨在从长远角度提高我们认识、改变气候以及补充世界气象组织的年度报告。

“This 2011 annual assessment confirms the findings of the previous WMO annual statements that climate change is happening now and is not some distant future threat. The world is warming because of human activities and this is resulting in far-reaching and potentially irreversible impacts on our Earth, atmosphere and oceans,” said WMO Secretary-General Michel Jarraud.

“这个2011年度评估结果确认了WMO先前的年度声明,气候变化正在发生,现在已不是什么遥远的未来威胁。世界气象组织秘书长米歇尔•雅罗说:“因为人类的活动,世界正在变暖,而且对我们地球上的大气和海洋产生深远的和潜在的不可逆转的影响。
Highlights
概要

Temperatures:
温度


The decade 2001-2010 was the warmest since records began in 1850, with global land and sea surface temperatures estimated at 0.46°C above the long-term average (1961-1990) of 14.0°C. Nine of these years were among the ten warmest on record. The warmest year on record was 2010, closely followed by 2005, with a mean temperature estimated at 0.53°C above the long-term average. It was the warmest decade ever recorded for global land surface, sea surface and for every continent.

自1850年有记录以来,2001-2010十年期是最热的十年,全球陆地和海洋表面温度估计比长期平均(1961-1990)14.0°C高出0.46°C以上。这十年来记录上10个最热年中有9个跻身其中。记录上最热的一年是2010年,平均气温估计超过长期平均水平0.53°C以上,其次是2005年。这是有史以来全球陆地表面、海洋表面和各大洲记录以来最热的十年。

Most parts of Canada, Alaska, Greenland, Asia and northern Africa recorded temperatures for the decade between 1°C and 3°C above the 1961-1990 average.

加拿大,阿拉斯加,格陵兰岛,亚洲和非洲北部的大部分地区录得超过1961-1990年期间10年期平均温度1℃和3℃以上。

Nearly 90% of the countries involved in the assessment experienced their warmest decade on record.

评估所涉及的将近90%的国家经历了有记录以来最热的十年。

The global temperature increase rate has been “remarkable” during the previous four decades, according to the preliminary summary. The global temperature has increased since 1971 at an average estimated rate of 0.166°C per decade compared to the average rate of 0.06 °C per decade computed over the full period 1881-2010.

根据全球气候年代际概要的初步结论,自1971年以来,全球气温每10年上升的平均率估计为0.166°C,相比于1881年至2010年期间每10年计算的平均增长率为0.06℃的速度,全球气温上升率在过去四十年来一直“惊人”。
1.gif (See Figures 1-3)
Precipitation
降水


Global precipitation (rain, snow etc) over land in 2001-2010 was the second highest average after 1951-60 since 1901. Within this global average, there were big regional and annual differences.

自1901年以来,2001至2010年全球陆地上的降水(雨,雪等)平均第二高,次于1951年至1960年的平均。这降水平均水平还存在很大的区域和年度差异。

Large parts of the Northern Hemisphere recorded wetter-than-average conditions during the decade, especially the eastern United States of America, northern and eastern Canada, and many parts of Europe and central Asia. South America, including Colombia, parts of northern and southern Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina experienced wetter-than-average conditions, as did most parts of South Africa, Indonesia and northern Australia.

十年期间,北半球的大部分地区记录的多雨高于平均水平,特别是美国东部,加拿大北部和东部,欧洲和中亚的许多地方。南美洲,包括哥伦比亚北部和巴西南部,乌拉圭和阿根廷东北部的部分地区经历了多雨,高于平均水平的如南非,印度尼西亚和澳大利亚北部的大部分地区。

In contrast, other regions experienced, on average, below normal precipitation. The western United States, southwestern Canada, Alaska, most parts of southern and western Europe, most parts of southern Asia, central Africa, central South America, and eastern and southeastern Australia were the most affected.

相比之下,其他地区经历了低于正常的平均降水。美国西部,阿拉斯加,加拿大西南部,欧洲南部和西部的大部分地区,亚洲南部,中部非洲,南美洲中部,东部和澳大利亚东南部的大部分地区受影响最严重。
http://www.wmo.int/pages/mediace ... 43_en-figure4-5.pdf
(See Figures 4 and 5)
Extreme Events
极端事件


Numerous weather and climate extremes affected almost every part of the globe with flooding, droughts, cyclones, heat waves, and cold waves. Two exceptional heat waves hit Europe and Russia during summer 2003 and 2010 respectively with disastrous impacts and thousands of deaths and outbreaks of prolonged bush fires.

许多极端天气和气候有洪水,干旱,飓风,热浪和寒潮几乎影响全球的每一部分。两个异常的热浪分别在2003和2010年夏季期间袭击欧洲和俄罗斯,造成数千人死亡以及爆发长时间的丛林火灾并带来灾难性的影响。

Flooding was the most reported extreme event during the decade with many parts of the world affected. Historical widespread and prolonged flooding affected Eastern Europe in 2001 and 2005, Africa in 2008, Asia (in particular Pakistan) in 2010 and India in 2005, and Australia in 2010.

十年期间大多数报告的洪水是影响世界许多地区的极端事件。历史中有东欧2001年和2005年普遍和长时间洪水影响,非洲在2008年,亚洲(特别是巴基斯坦)在2010年,印度在2005年以及2010年的澳大利亚。

A large number of countries reported extreme drought conditions, including Australia, eastern Africa, the Amazonia region and the western United States. Humanitarian consequences were significant in eastern Africa during the first half of the decade, with widespread shortage of food and loss of lives and livestock.

各国都有一大批报告极端干旱的条件,包括澳大利亚,非洲东部,亚马孙地区和美国西部。东部非洲的人道主 义后果是严重的,在十年期的上半期,生活上食品普遍短缺和牲畜遭受损失。

Forty-eight out of 102 countries (47 per cent) reported that their highest national maximum temperature was recorded in 2001-2010, compared to 20 per cent for 1991-2000 and around 10 per cent for the earlier decades.

相比于1991-2000年的20%和早期十年的约10%,2001-2010期间,102个国家的48个(47%)报告均录得本国的最高温度。

The decade saw the highest level of tropical cyclone activity on record for the North Atlantic basin. In 2005 category 5 hurricane Katrina was the most costly hurricane to hit the United States, with a significant human toll of more than 1 800 deaths. In 2008, tropical cyclone Nargis was the worst natural disaster in Myanmar and the world’s deadliest tropical cyclone during the decade, killing more than 70 000 people.

这十年来看到了记录北大西洋海域最高级别的热带气旋活动。 2005年CAT5飓风“卡特里娜”是袭击美国的损失最惨重的飓风,造成重大的人员伤亡并超过1800人死亡。2008年热带气旋Nargis,是这十年期间缅甸最严重的自然灾害和世界上最致命的热带气旋,超过7万人死亡。
http://www.wmo.int/pages/mediace ... 43_en-figure6-7.pdf
(See Figures 6 and 7)
Sea Ice
海冰

The decline in the Arctic sea-ice, observed since the end of the 1960s, continued throughout 2001-2010. A historical low Arctic sea-ice extent at the melting period in September was recorded in 2007.

自20世纪60年代末以来的观察,在北极,海冰面积持续减少贯穿2001年至2010年。在2007年9月的融化期,录得北极海冰程度的历史最低点。

Arctic sea ice extent was again well below average in 2011. The seasonal minimum, reached on 9 September, was 4.33 million square kilometres (35% below the 1979-2000 average) according to the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center. This was the second-lowest seasonal minimum on record, 0.16 million square kilometres above the record low set in 2007. Sea ice volume was even further below average and was estimated at a new record low of 4200 cubic kilometres, surpassing the record of 4580 cubic kilometres set in 2010.

2011年北极海冰程度再次大大低于平均水平。根据美国国家冰雪数据中心,9月9日到达季节最低,是433万平方公里(低于1979-2000年平均的35%)。是季节性最低纪录上的第二低,高于2007年的最低记录0.16万平方公里。海冰量更进一步低于平均水平,估计在4200立方公里的新纪录低点,打破了2010年4580立方公里的纪录。

Satellites have shown the fluctuation in sea ice from year to year since 1972. According to scientific measurements, both the thickness and sea ice extent in the Arctic have shown a marked decline over the past 35 years. Data indicate, however, an even more dramatic reduction in Arctic sea ice cover in recent years. The last six years of the decade (2005 to 2010) recorded the lowest five September extents, with 2007 recording the record minimum extent with 4.28 million km2, 39 % below the 1979-2000 reference period.

自1972年以来到今年,卫星显示了海冰的波动。根据科学测量,北极海冰的厚度和面积在过去35年里都表现出了明显的下滑。然而,有数据表明,近年来北极海冰更急剧的减少。在十年期间的过去6年(2005年至2010年),有五年的九月录得最低程度, 2007年记录的最低程度4.28万平方公里低于1979至2000年基准期的39%。
帖子中涉及地图来源广泛,图中所涉及的行政区域以中国官方认定的为准。
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-3-24 21:44 | 显示全部楼层
上图发不了,谁帮忙一下。
帖子中涉及地图来源广泛,图中所涉及的行政区域以中国官方认定的为准。
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发表于 2012-3-24 23:16 | 显示全部楼层

回 040813云娜 的帖子

040813云娜:
上图发不了,谁帮忙一下。

你那边衔接进入不了麽?看这样能否看到与字体清楚不.
图1.png
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-3-24 23:25 | 显示全部楼层

回 A-LI 的帖子

A-LI:你那边衔接进入不了麽?看这样能否看到与字体清楚不.
(2012-03-24 23:16)
谢谢,但图太小,字迹看不清楚。
帖子中涉及地图来源广泛,图中所涉及的行政区域以中国官方认定的为准。
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